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V.2 

Records of the past: 





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RECORDS OF THE PAST. 



VOL. II. 



EGYPTIAN TEXTS. 



^•2 



NOTE. 

Every Text here given is either now translated for the first 
time, or has been specially revised by the Author to the date of 
this publication. 



RECORDS OF THE PAST: 

BEING 

ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS 

OF THE 

ASSYRIAN AND EGYPTIAN MONUMENTS. 

PUBLISHED UNDER THE SANCTION 
OF 

THE SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 
VOL. 11. 

EGYPTIAN TEXTS. 



LONDON: 
SAMUEL BAGSTER AND SONS, 

15, PATERNOSTER ROW. 



2E 



CONTENTS. 



Preface ... ... ... ... . ; 

Inscription of Una ... ... ... ... ... j 

By S. Birch, LL.D. 

Instructions of Amenemhat I ... ... ... g 

By G. Maspero. 

Annals of Thothmes III : — 

Statistical Tablet ... ... ... ... 17 

By S. Birch, LL.D. 

Tablet of Thothmes III 29 

By S. Birch, LL.D. 

Battle of Megiddo 35 

By S. Birch, LL.D. 

Inscription of Amen-Em-Heb ... ... 59 

By S. Birch, LL.D. 

War of Rameses II with the Khita ... ... 65 

By Prof. E. L. Lushington. 

Inscription of Pianchi Mer-Amon ... ... ... 79 

By the Rev. Canon Cook, M.A. 

Tablet of Newer-Hotep ... ... ... ... 105 

By Paul Pierret. 

Travels of an Egyptian ... ... ... ... 107 

By Francois Chabas. 

Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys ... ... ... 117 

By P. J. DE Horrack. 

Hymn to Amen-Ra ... ... ... ... ... 127 

By C. W. Goodwin, M.A. 



CONTENTS. 

Tale of the Two Brothers ... ... ... ... 137 

By P. LE Page Renouf. 

Tale of the Doomed Prince ... ... ... ... 153 

By C. W. GooDwi.M, M.A. 

Calendar ... ... ... ... ... ... 161 

Table of Dynasties ... ... ... ... ... 162 

Measures and Weights ... ... ... ... 164 

Lists of Further Texts ... ... ... ... 165 

Selected by Geo. Smith, and P. le 
Page Rekouf. 
Original Circular. 



PREFACE. 



The second volume of the " RECORDS OF THE Past " 
contains a translation of some of the principal Egyp- 
tian texts in the hieroglyphic and hieratic character. 
Although the interpretation of the Egyptian has been 
pursued for nearly half a century, and the progress 
made has been quite satisfactory, so that the nature 
and tenor of all inscriptions and texts are made out, 
some difficulties still lie in the way about certain 
points, and some difference of opinion prevails about 
the meaning of a few words or their exact equivalents 
in transcribing them into modern letters. These 
however are comparatively few, and the different 
transcriptions are not greater than those found in the 
works of scholars who have translated or written 
works upon modern Oriental languages. It is indeed 
to be regretted that one uniform mode of spelling or 
transcribing the same word in Oriental languages, has 
not been adopted by scholars, but notwithstanding 
the proposal of different universal systems for this 



11 PREFACE. 

purpose, none has hitherto been adopted. The state 
in which all ancient documents have comedown to the 
present day is that of mutilation, more or less severe, 
according to the dangers to which they have been 
exposed. On monuments engraved on stone it is 
sometimes greater than on the more fragile materials, 
such as papyrus or leather used for the purposes of 
writing. Although it is possible to supply the smaller 
lacunae by conjectures, more or less happy, of the 
obvious meaning, some monuments have lost so much 
of their text that the attempt to restore it would be 
misleading the general inquirer. Each translator uses 
his judgment in this respect, and restorations of texts 
like those of injured sculpture must be accepted for 
what they are worth. In the present work they are 
inserted between brackets, to distinguish them from 
passages which exist in the originals but the meaning 
of which is doubtful, which are given in italics. Be- 
sides the difficulties already mentioned there are 
others in Egyptian texts, such as an occasional and 
startling change of the personal pronoun, and an 
abrupt transition of tense. These were probably 
flights of fine writing, according to the Egyptian 
standard of taste, but have not the same merit at 
the present day. On the whole there is little idiom 



PREFACE. iii 

in the texts, especially the historical, for after the 
fulsome laudation of deified sovereigns, which encum- 
bers with its luxuriance the commencement of his- 
torical documents, the narrative is clear, and the 
metaphors sparingly introduced are at once simple 
and intelligible; the text marches to the cadence 
of a harmonious syntax. 

There are some points to be remembered about 
the transcription of proper names of kings and other 
persons which appear in this little volume. The 
Egyptian kings had generally five, sometimes as 
many as six names and titles. Two of these only 
are of great importance for historical and chrono- 
logical inquirers, those introduced into rings or so 
called cartouches. The first, the solar or divine name, 
is the prsenomen ; the second, the family or birth name. 
Some Egyptologists formerly translated the praeno- 
men, but in consideration of the difficulty attending 
it, on account of the doubtful meaning of these prae- 
nomens and their historical importance, they have 
been of late transcribed, and will be so found in the 
volume, as Ra-ser-ka, Ra-men-kheper, Ra-user- 
MA. Some differences of transcription also prevail in 
names; some such as Thothmes, having been tran- 
scribed Tet-MES, Tot-mes, and even Taaud-mes by 



IV PREFACE. 

different Egyptologists. In order to render the mean- 
ing still more perspicuous the Greek equivalent names 
have in a few cases been introduced and employed by 
different translators : thus the Egyptian word Un has 
been translated Heliopolis, the Greek equivalent 
or name of the same city and HarpoCRATES has been 
in the same way introduced instead of its Egyptian 
form Har-PA-KHRAT. Nothing has more impeded the 
general diffusion of Oriental knowledge and interest 
than the strange and unknown names which the 
general inquirer finds on opening translations of 
ancient or modern Oriental texts, although by de- 
grees they are filtering into the public mind through 
their better known, and more euphonious Greek 
equivalents. 

Although there is no doubt that the notes ap- 
pended to the translations might have been ex- 
tended and made more numerous, it would have 
been a great incumbrance to a work which is in- 
tended to popularise the translations of the texts 
themselves, and not to give dissertations on historical, 
chronological, or other points of interest. The notes 
however have been left to the discretion of each 
translator, who is alone, as in the case of the trans- 
lation, responsible for them. The introductory pre- 



PREFACE. V 

faces have also, as far as possible, been restricted 
to the indications of the works when the text has 
been published and the locality where it has been 
found. The general or most salient points of inter- 
est which the inscription or text gives is also, when 
required, pointed out; as also the previous transla- 
tions of which a translator may have in any way 
availed himself Justice has therefore been rendered 
to former inquirers, whose labours have lighted the 
interpreter on his path through the gloom of centuries. 
Even when precise or general accounts of the contents 
have been published without a literal translation, they 
are noticed, so as not only to guide the public but 
also the student to the sources of information. In 
translations from prose compositions each line of the 
original text is indicated ; of poetical compositions, 
each verse. This renders the work a manual for 
students themselves, the more advanced can readily 
find and examine for themselves what they require, 
while beginners will have the advantages of transla- 
tions at hand of a mass of texts, which, when studied, 
will render them masters of the Assyrian and Egyp- 
tian languages. Not only, therefore, it is hoped, will 
they offer to the public the principal results of these 
new branches of human learning, but they will stimu- 



VI PREFACE. 

late fresh inquirers to enrol themselves in the ranks of 
the corps of interpreters of the Past. 

In Egypt, as in Babylonia and Assyria, these texts 
are of the highest antiquity ; hieroglyphics are found 
as early as the second Egyptian dynasty, and docu- 
ments in the cursive hand or demotic descend to the 
fifth century of the present era, while the spoken lan- 
guage, or Coptic, has not been extinct for more than 
two centuries. When it is considered that the texts are 
in most instances contemporaneous with the events 
they record, and written or executed under public con- 
trol, it must be admitted that they are of the highest 
importance, both from their vast antiquity, and the seal 
of authority impressed upon them. They are very dif- 
ferent from documents written by Greek and Roman 
historians, however conscientious or esteemed, who had 
to rely on the doubtful veracity of interpreters, and 
whose works only give a dim, shattered, or distorted 
reflection of the splendour of the ancient Eastern 
monarchies. It is from the new texts that the ancient 
history of Egypt and Central Asia has not only to be 
restored but absolutely reconstructed. Many of the 
inscriptions were not even accessible to Egyptians 
and Babylonians at a later period, for they have been 
exhumed from tombs hermetically sealed, or^documents 



PREFACE. VU 

hopelessly buried ; traditions only of their contents had 
been preserved, but the actual texts themselves have 
not escaped the eye of an age animated with the 
strongest thirst for historical knowledge. In these 
ancient nations a happy union of art and philology 
has reproduced a picture of the past of the most com- 
plete character. The texts, paintings, and sculptures 
all appear together and like illuminations on a giant 
scale, the events recorded by the pen are pourtrayed 
in their contemporary appearance by the pencil or the 
chisel. For Biblical Exegesis they are the most re- 
liable contributaries which have appeared, new light 
has not only been thrown on the history of the Jews, 
but additional evidence has been given of the simi- 
larity of modes of thought, rituals, customs, and phi- 
lology. It is simply impossible to ignore their value, 
for it would be a grievous error to reject all contem- 
porary history, as told by the conterminous nations of 
Palestine, from the consideration of the age, details, 
and circumstances of events in which these nations 
were the principal actors. Whatever difficulties may 
present themselves in the diverse statements of the 
same events, owing to national pride or imperfect 
local knowledge, the reconciliation of conflicting state- 
ments is a mere question of time, and the acquirement 



VIU PREFACE. 

of additional data to those already possessed, which 
are inadequate for the final solution of some of the 
more arduous problems. If indeed the usual argu- 
ment that such translations, being in their nature to 
some extent uncertain, is to be adduced as a reason 
for not accepting their authority, let it be known that 
there is no greater discrepancy between the labours of 
Egyptologists and Assyriologists in this respect than 
between translations made from other ancient lan- 
guages on which centuries of philological criticism 
have been expended; all translators agree in the main 
facts, and more cannot be said of past history or 
modern events than that the main facts, as narrated, 
are correct. It is a proof of the advance of civiliza- 
tion that so much attention should have been paid, 
and so much labour bestowed on the elucidation of 
these ancient texts. An age preeminent in material 
triumphs, the subjection of the elements, the acquire- 
ment of wealth, and the improvement of material 
prosperity has also seen the discovery of the lost 
treasures of antiquity, its mental activity not being 
limited by the mere alchemical love of gold. The 
number of translators, foreign and English, whose 
labours appear, are cited in the present volume, and 
most of them have placed their services for the love 



PREFACE. ix 

of the abstract and unendowed learning. The labours 
of the translators in both volumes have been rendered 
for the sake of science and truth alone. When ap- 
pealed to, the most cordial response was given to the 
demand, and there is no greater pleasure than that of 
recording how cheerfully their aid was rendered to the 
production of these volumes. 

The texts hitherto translated are only a portion 
of those which are known to exist in public museums 
and private hands ; though much has been published, 
a larger number of texts still await translation, 
and fresh materials will no doubt be discovered, 
as although some sites are apparently exhausted, 
others are almost intact. The list given in the 
first volume will convey an idea of the extent of 
the different texts in Egyptian, Babylonian, and 
Assyrian, which probably rival in extent those of any 
other known ancient literature. It is hoped that suf- 
ficient interest will be aroused to the value of this 
work to cause the whole, or at all events all the most 
important texts of this ancient literature to appear 
in their translated form, as the two first volumes 
only open the series, and as equally interesting if not 
even still more attractive materials remain for the 
future numbers of the series. The result to Biblical 



X PREFACE. 

Archaeology, Chronology, the reconstruction of ancient 
Oriental History, and the fathoming of ancient 
thought cannot be too highl)- appreciated. The 
mounds, the sepulchres, the traces of primeval man, are 
unaccompanied by that Divine exponent of thought, a 
written language, but in these most ancient of the 
world's Records, humanit)- appears not as a babe, un- 
intelligible, in swaddling clothes, but as an adult and 
reasonable being, that articulates to the nineteenth 
century the history of the cradle of its civilization. 

S. BIRCH. 



INSCRIPTION OF UNA. 

Vlth DYNASTY. 



TRANSLATED BY S. BIRCH, LL.D. 



'T'HIS Inscription found by M. Mariette and sub- 
sequently placed in the Museum of Boulaq at Cairo, 
has been published and translated by the late Vi- 
comte Em. de Rouge, RecJierches sur Ics vioniancnts : 
six pranicrcs dynasties, 4to, Paris, 1 866, p. 117 and 
foil. pi. 7, 8. The whole of the text, owing to the 
difficult passages which are in it, has not been trans- 
lated by M. de Rouge, but a precis of the whole is 
given, with interlinear versions of the most important 
passages. It is one of the oldest historical texts 
known, and is of the period of the Vlth dynasty. In 
it is found the earliest known mention of the Negroes, 
who seem at that remote period to have been 



2 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

conquered by the Egyptians and conscribed for 
their armies. This text is not only one of the 
oldest historical documents of ancient Egypt but it is 
also of great interest. Unfortunately it is extremely 
difficult to translate, some portions being very 
obscure, and others mutilated or imperfect. 



INSCRIPTION OF UNA. 



LINE 

1 I WAS made Crown Bearer of the Majesty (of 

the King) Teta, and (had) the dignity of Superintendent 
of the storehouse. The great house made me Registrar 
(Sacred Scribe) of the docks. 

2 ... Chief of the coffer of the Majesty of (the King) 
Pepi, His Majesty gave me the rank of Companion, 
Scribe, Priest of the place of his pyramid . 

3 (gave me the dignity) of Scribe for a time ' . . 

. . . His Majesty was satisfied with me (beyond all) 
his servants. (He gave me also) to hear all things. I 
was also alone with the Royal Scribe, and officer of all 
the secrets 

4 . . . . (built) in the name of the King of the royal 
seat of the temple of the Hexapolis. The King was 
satisfied with me more than any of his chiefs," of his 
family,' of his servants 

5 any by the Majesty of the Divine 

Lord I brought a white stone sarcophagus from the land 
of Ruau,* His Majesty made me sail (there) as a 
Divine Sealer and Crown Bearer 

6 I (departed) under his orders bringing this sarcophagus 
from Ruau. It came thence brought in the great boat 
of die inner palace with its cover, 

7 a door, 2 jambs, and a pedestal^ never before was the 
like done by any servant, for I was very submissi\-e to 
please the heart of His Majesty. 

8 I was very submissive contenting the heart of His 

^ Or scribe for a time : temporary scribe. 

' i'a)' chiefs, or eunuchs. ' Sa/iu " mummies" family or ancestors. 

* Or Rumakhu, an unknown locahty. ■ Or basin. 



RECORDS OF THE PAST. 



Majesty I was satisfying His Majesty when I was, a 
Sacred Scribe' His Majesty made me sole companion, 
Superintendent of the dock 
9 of the ... of the King, Superintendent of the land of 
Khent. I was also doing the wishes of His Majesty 
in making what was approved, in doing the paths of the 
King, in setting me up as Chief I also 

10 made His Majesty satisfied with it above all things, and 
receiver of things in the royal seat for the great royal wife 
Amtes in private. His Majesty appointed me to be 
auditor of each. There was not 

1 1 any Royal Scribe, Magistrate, or Chief there except 
me alone so greatly to the contentment to the heart of 
His Majesty, and satisfying His Majesty there, I was 
made sole Scribe 

1 2 and sole secret Scribe while my rank in the palace was 
Superintendent of the land of Khent ; never was 
like an auditor of secrets of the palace before except 
when His Majesty appointed 

13 one on account of the great confidence of His Majesty 
more than all his chiefs, all his Courtiers," all his ser- 
vants. His Majesty turned the things of the Amu of 
the Herusha 

14 His Majesty made soldiers of numerous ten thousands 
in the land of the South, likewise he went up in Northern 
Abu' .... in the land of the North in the 

also there 

15 in the land of Ster, within the land of Ster in the land of 
Aarut, the Negroes from Nam, the Negroes from Amam 
the Negroes 

16 from Uauat, the Negroes from Kau the Negroes from 

' Or scribe for a time ; or of the " door " or " mouth " temporary scribe. 
' Or family Sahu. ' Elephantine. 



INSCRIPTION OF UNA. 5 

LINE 

the land of Tatam His Majesty placed me at the head 
of tliat army. 

17 Lo the Nomarchs, the Chancellors, the sole friends of 
the palace, the Superintendents, the Rulers of the nomes 
of the North and South, the friends, Superintendents of 
gold 

18 the Superintendent of the Priests of the South and 
North, the Superintendents of the register and at the 
head Officers of the South and the land of the North, 
and of the cities drilled ' the Negroes of these lands. 

19 I made the arrangement ; lo my rank in the palace was 
Superintendent of the land of Khent making a road to 
the place to the best of my hands (ability). I was alone 
there as a second of His Majesty 

20 to the best of my power there ; wearing out my sandals' 
going in the road to the best of leading. I was alone 
there, laden in every place 

21 to the best of my leading one of each of his family, of 
all persons, they placed them at the pool of the North, 
the morning of the day of bringing in peace the footstool 
of HoRUS Lord of Truth, then were the .... of 

22 ... . all good things. Went the of that force, 

never was there a better going of any servants, this force 
came 

23 in safety finding as it wished the land of 

Herusha. Went this army in peace it subdued the land 
of Herusha. 

24 This army came in safety it founded the fortresses of 
Herusha. This army came safely it cut down 

25 its figs and its grapes, this army came safely it set fire 
to .... all the Negroes. Came this army 

' Rather "likewise" "also" "of." 
' Or, possibly, " having sandals in my hand." 



6 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

LINE 

26 in safety it bound the troops there by many ten thou- 
sands. This army came safely (it took the enemy) 

27 there by very many in number as hving captives His 
Majesty was pleased at it above all things. He sent me to 
set right . . . 

28 five times, to subdue the land of Herusha to subdue 
their revolt by this force His Majesty was pleased at it 
beyond everything 

29 Saying, have revolted the Negroes of this tribe of the 
land of Khetam, safely to Takhisa ; I sailed 

30 again in boats with this force. I subdued this country 
from the extreme frontier 

31 on the North of the land of Herusha. Then was ordered 
this army on the road. They subdued them also 

32 smiting all opponents there. The place was thrown 
under my sandals. The King of Upper and Lower Egypt 
Merenra the Divine Lord the ever living gave me 

33 to be a Duke, Governor of the South ascending from 
Abu ' to the North of the nome Letopolis. I very much 
pleased His Majesty, I greatly pleased His Majesty to 
the satisfaction of His Majesty. 

34 I kept them under my sandals. His Majesty praised 
(me) on account of it selecting me that I was made in 
the place of a Chief more than all his eunuchs, all his 
household, 

35 all his servants. Never was this dignity granted to any ser- 
vant before. He appointed me also Governor of the South. 
I attended to the best of my hands in it, without a second 

36 making all the constructions, and preparing all the 
things which were to be prepared for the inner palace in 
that land of the South redoubling every hour the pre- 
parations for tlie palace in that land of the South a 

' Elephantine. 



INSCRIPTION OF UNA. 



second time made the eunuch (or Chief) of . . 

3 7 constructing in that land. Never was the like done in the 
South before, and was praised on account of it. His 
Majesty sent me 

31 to Abha to bring (for) the living Lord die Sarcophagus 
of the living with its cover and pyramidion, a statue for 
the pyramid Shanefer of the (King) Merenra, the Divine 
Ruler 

39 His Majesty sent me to Abu' to bring a granite door- 
way with sill, granite doors and lintels 

40 to bring granite doorway, and sills, of die cornice on 
it, for die Shanefer pyTamid of INIerenra, the Divine 
Ruler. I transported 

41 (them) forthwith to the Shanefer p}Tamid of the King 
Merenra in 6 boats of burthen three towing boats, 3 
boats of 8 lengths, for the troops one vessel, never was 
there at Abha 

42 (and) Abu' a vessel of war in days of any King. 
All things were (according) to what His Majesty 
had ordered, all things were so, according to all die 
orders of His Majesty there. His INIajesty sent me to 
Hanub to bring a great slab' (or altar) of alabaster of 
Hanub I also extracted that slab in 17 days. Extracted 

43 from Hanub to place in its boat, to transport it in that 
boat of burthen 

44 I made for it a boat of burdien in the little dock 60 
cubits in length and 30 in its breadth, put together in 
17 days in the month of Epiphi. Then there was not 

45 water in the turns (of the river) to tow to the pyramid 

' Elephantine. 

° Or, load, help is a table, or altar. A boat of 60 cubits long or about 
100 feet would take in a load or slab. 



O RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

LINE 

Shanefer of Merenra safely. It was done forthwith 
by me before the god' (King). His Majesty the Divine 
Lord ordered and sent me to excavate 4 docks 

46 in the South for 3 boats of burthen, 4 transports in the 
small basin of the land of Uauat. Then the Rulers of the 
countries of Areret, Aam, and Ma, 

47 supplied the wood for them. It was made in about a 
year at the time of the inundation loaded with very much 
granite for the Shanefer pyramid of Merenra. Then 
was made to be constructed 

48 an edifice in these four docks likewise to 

invoke the spirits of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt 
Merenra ever living more than all the gods for all things 
were done 

49 before the god (King) as His Divine Majesty ordered, 
I was the beloved of his fa:ther, the praised of his mother, 
the Chief, 

50 the delight of his brethren, the Duke,' the Governor of 
the South, the truly devoted to Osiris was I. 

' Or "as the king liked." " Or ha, "chief." 



THE INSTRUCTIONS OF 

KING AMENEMHAT I 

TO 

HIS SON USERTESENI. 

Xllth DYNASTY. 



BY 

G. MASPERO, 

Docteur-es-Lettres, Professeur au College de France, et ^ 
I'Ecole des Hautes Etudes. 

'T'O establish a correct text of this important work I 
had at my disposal: ist Papyrus Sallier ii. (pi. 1, 1. 1 — 
pi. Ill, 1. 9.), 2nd the unpublished Papyrus Millingen. 
a fac-simile of which I owe to the kindness of M. 
Jacques de Rouge; 3rd Papyrus Sallier I, (p. viii. 
verso) ; 4th, Ostracon 3623, and 5th, Ostracon 3638 
of the British Museum. The manuscript 4920 of 
Louvre which contains at least the first half of the 
text is almost entirely illegible and was of no use to 
me. 

Out of five available sources, only one contains a 
complete copy of The Instructions of Amenemhat, and 



10 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

that most incorrectly, viz., Papyrus Sallier II. The 
Papyrus Millingcn is correct enough, and when entire 
contained the whole of the work : it is unfortunately 
mutilated at the end, and fails exactly where it was 
most wanted. Sallier I, Ostraca 3623 and 3638 
have only portions of the text indifferently written 
by careless scribes. Taking Tlie Instruciions of 
Amcncmhat to have been divided as they are in the 
Papyrus Millingen into fifteen verses, there is for 
each of them the following authorities : — ver. i.-vii. 
Pap. Sallier I, II ; Pap. Millingen ; Ostracon 3623: 
ver. viii., Pap. Sallier II ; Pap. Millingen ; Ostracon 
3623 : ver. ix., Pap. Sallier II ; Pap. Millingen; Os- 
traca 3623, 3638 : ver. x.-xii., Pap. Sallier II ; Pap. 
Millingen ; Ostracon 3638 : ver. xiii.-xv. Pap. Sallier 
II ; fragments oi Pap. Millingen. 

M. Goodwin gave an analysis of the text in his 
paper in the Cambridge Essays on Hieratic Papyri 
(1858) and translated about six or seven lines of it. 



TRANSLATION. 

1 The beginning of the Instructions — made by His Ma- 
jesty the King of Upper and Lower Egypt Rash'ote- 
PHET — Son of the Sun Amenemhat — deceased : — He 
says in a dream — unto his son the Lord intact," — he 
says rising up Hke a god : — " Listen to what I speak 
unto thee : — Now thou art a King of earth," rulest thou 
now over the three regions, — act even better than did 
thy predecessors.' 

2 Let concord be kept between the subjects and thyself," — 
lest people should give their heart up to fear. — Being 
amongst them, do not isolate thyself; — let not (only) the 
landed lords and noblemen fill thy heart like brothers, — 
and grant not access unto thee to people whose friend- 
ship has not been long tried.* 

3 Apply thyself to strengthen thy heart, — because there 
are no more servants, O man, — in the day of thy need. — 
As for myself, I have given to the humble and made the 

' Neb-er-zer, " the lord intact," a title of Osiris in opposition with Sep, 
Sepi, Osiris dismembered by Set. 

= Thus after Sallier 1, 1. 2, and Pap. Mill. pi. i. I. 2. 

' Lit. "Act more than the Graces, iioiore ;" the word nowre, like our 
title " Sa Grace" being- reserved to kings, gods, or men of high rank. 

" Lit. "and himself." 

* Lit. "Do not let men be coming in, not being duration of friendship." 

' Sic. Pap. Mill, I, 1. 5. The other texts give the first person, " I apply 
myself." 



12 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

weak be ; — I have given valour to him who had it not as 
well as to him who (already) had it. 

4 From a subject ' I have raised thee, — I have given thee 
thy arms' that fear of thee should come of it, — and I 
have adorned myself with my fine linen so that I looked 
like water-flowers of my (garden),' — I have anointed my- 
self mth essences (as largely) as if I spilt water from 
my store-house. 

5 My images live in the middle of men, — (because) I 
have made the afflicted ones unto «(7«-afflicted whose 
(cries) were heard no more ;■* the great place of fight, it 
was seen no more, — and yet it had been fought before, 
(as if the land were) a bull forgetful of yesterday,* — and 
there was stability of fortune neither for the ignorant nor 
for the learned man. 

6 After supper-time it was, when night was come, — I took 
an hour of pleasure, — I laid myself down on the carpets 
of my house, I stretched myself, — and I began in my 
soul to follow sleep ; — but — lo ! there had been weapons 
— gathered together to oppose me, and I became as 
helpless as the snake of the field.' 

' Lit. " an eater of rations." 

' Pap. Mill. i. 1. 7, " I have given him (thee) mi/ arms." 

' Lit. " Hke my shui," the shui being reeds or water flowers. 

" My Image hves in the hearts of men for I have made those that were 
afflicted free from their afflictions and their cries are heard no more. 

' Thus after Pap. Mill. i. I. lo. I tal<e that phrase to signify that people 
had fought one against another as if they had forgotten .all their old 
traditions. 

' Thus after Pap. Mill., p. ii. 1. ,, 2. Probably the amphisbaena or 
blindworm is here meant. 



INSTRUCTIONS OF AMENEMHAT. 13 

Then I woke up to fight, feeling strong in my hmbs," 
— but I soon found that it was to strike at (a foe) who 
did not stand' — If I caught a rebel with weapons in his 
hand, — I made the coward' turn back and fly :" — he 
was not brave (even) in the night, and no one fought. — 
There never was a time of need (coming) that I did not 
know of; 

And when my day came, without my knowing it,' — I 
had not listened to the courtiers (who wished) me to 
abdicate in thy favour, — but I sat with thee, and lo ! I 
made designs for thee ; — (and) lest there should be in- 
conscious fear (spreading amongst them),* — I never wore 
a heart careless of what was for (my) servants.' 

Whether locusts were drawn up to plunder, — whether I 
were assaulted by seditions in the interior of my house, — 
whether (the Nile) waters were (too) low and wells 
dry' — whether (my enemies) took advantage of thy 
youth for their (wicked) deeds, — I never drew back 



' Lit. " I woke up to fight, and I was in (or of) my limbs." 

' The passage is restituted partly from Pap. Mill. ii. 1. 2. and partly 
from a correction : " Qimna h^uniroh'er fu an-mennew." 

^ HHmiu, a coarse epithet to be found in Pianxi's stele A, 16: ^^ An 
qem u memviu zes-eio m h'imtu, " " No army stands whose general is a 
coward." 

* Lit. " I made the coward turn round." 

^ Lit. *'When my passage came and I not knowing it." " My passage" 
seems to be an euphemism for my death. 

" Lit. " So that there be no fear, it not knowing itself." 
' The text of that phrase is most corrupt in all the existing MSS.; 
therefore the translation is not to be accepted without caution. 

s Restored from Pap. Mill. ii. 1. 5. 



T4 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

since the day when I was born : — never was the Hke 
since the time when the heroes did their deeds.' 

10 I have sent my messengers up to Abu° and my couriers 
do\\'n to Ath'u,' — I stood on the boundaries of the land 
to keep watch on its borders — and I brought to the 
boundaries men armed with the khopesh, — being armed 
with the khopesh (myself) in (all) my forms.* 

11 I am a maker of corn, the lover of Nepra ; ' — he 
granted me the rising up of the Nile upon the cultivated 
lands.' — There was no hungry (creature) through me, no 
thirsty (creature) through me, — (because) every one took 
care to act according to my saying, — and all my orders 
increased the love my people had for me.' 

12 I hunted the lion and brought back the crocodile (a 
prisoner) — I fought the Uauai * — and brought back the 
Matsui ' (a prisoner) ; — I directed my efforts against the 
Sati," (so that) he came (to me) like a whelp. 

13 I built myself a house adorned with gold ; — its roof was 



Lit. " since the time of action of the heroes " viz., since the time 
before Menes. 

" Elephantine. 

' Sic. after Pap. Mill. ii. 1. 6. Ahu, is Elephantine, Athu, Natho in the 
Delta. 

•> After Ostr. ii. and Pap. Mill. ii. I. 8. 

' The corn-god. 

' See negative confession in Ritual cap. cxxv. 

' Lit. " What I ordered all (was) place for friendship." 

" The Nubians. 

' The Mifi/ti of Hecatseus Milesius, in Lybia. 

'° The Asiatics. 



INSTRUCTIONS OF AMENEMHAT. 15 

painted blue," the walls in it — and the passages are of 
stones (connected with) metal-hooks ; — the bolts are of 
artificial men-metsJ. — Made for eternity, time shrinks 
before it, — (for) I possess all the everlasting virtues of 
the Lord intact." 

14 There are many devices of passages ' (in it) ; — I (alone) 
know how to tell how to find my Grace,' — so that no one 
knows it except thee, — O man Usortesen l. h. s. ! — 
Thy legs go, — and thou thyself with thy o^vn eyes thou 
seest me ' — represented' in a fortunate hour, — amongst 
the /tammu ' who do honour to thee. 

15 The things I have made,' I transferred to thee after- 
wards ! — (Now) I am the point at which (must) aim 
whatever is in thy heart, — the statue on which to put the 
pschent and the signs of divinity, — the seal of friend- 
ship ! (for) I have begun for thee — prayers in the boat of 
Ra. — Behold ! what made thee King is what I made 
be — — Raising up statues, 

' Lit. " Its roof in xeshet." The xeslet ma, is the lapis lazuli ; the 
xesl-et ari, is the blue colour with which the Egyptians painted the roofs of 
their temples. 

" The text is corrupt here. 

' Secret passage. 

" Lit. " his Grace." 

5 Pap. Mill. iii. 1. 5 has " (I) myself, with my own eyes, (I) sec (thee)." 

' Mesi. 

' The hammu seem to be a kiiid of spirits who are often represented 
adoring the rising sun. 

8 Lit. "The things I have made lefore me." cf. Baku xer h'ata, "The 
servants i'f/bre me" for " my servants." 



1 6 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Strengthening what thou grewest — . . 



Here the Papyrus ends. 

(Dedicated) to the person of the wise Poet, the excellent 
above all, — the Scribe of treasury, Qagabu,— the Scribe 
of treasury Hora, — by the Scribe Enna-enna in the 
first year, the second month of Pert, the 20th day. 



17 



ANNALS OF THOTHMES III. 
THE STATISTICAL TABLET. 



TRANSLATED BY S. BIRCH, LL.D. 

4 



'T'HE so-called Statistical tablet of Karnak, or 
Annals of Thothmes III, was inscribed on a sand- 
stone wall in the court of the granite sanctuary at 
Karnak, and a part of the inscription here trans- 
lated is preserved in the Louvre at Paris. The 
text has been published in Young, Hieroglyphics 
pi. 41, 42, from a copy by Sir Gardner Wilkinson, 
and also by Lepsius, Aiisivald pi. 12. A trans- 
lation was given by Birch, Transactions Royal Society 
of Literature, Neiu Scries, Vol. II, p. lOO, by the 

Vicomte de Rouge Revue ArcMologique i860, p. 297, 

3 



1 8 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

and by M. Brugsch Histoire (TEgypte p. lOO. A por- 
tion of the text is however only translated by M. de 
Rouge, without the hieroglyphics, from copies given by 
M. Marietta. This renders it much more complete, 
while the fragments published by M. Brugsch give a 
much earlier date, that of the 15th year, if correct, 
(and there is no apparent reason to doubt its accuracy) 
falling into the period of the joint reign of Hatasu 
and Thothmes III. It is however remarkable that 
there should be only 4 expeditions or campaigns 
between the 15th and 29th years. Possibly the 
campaign of the isth year belonged to another and 
earlier series. 



f 



19 



THE STATISTICAL TABLET. 



Fragments 1-3 of an inscription on Sandstone being a 
part of the so-called Statistical Tablet of Thothmes III. 
Commencement and fragments of lines. The Text is 
engraved with a partial explanation. Brugsch, Recueil de 
Monuments Egyptiens, I. pi. 26. 

FRAGMENT 1. 

LINE 

1 The statues of the god which are in the Temples . 

2 chambers having grand vases of ... . 

3 to adore the beauty of his person at his rising, naming 



4 of electrum," and black metal placed at the base of the 
throne .... 

5 His Majesty augmented it again to his father Horus 

6 with the constructions of the hands of the Southern 
wall,' never after will be done the like .... 

7 like the stars in the bosom of Heaven, the royal statue 
was in (or of) 

8 Then his Divine Majesty gave him numerous me- 
morials 

9 anew. The 15 th year the 27 th of Pashons went forth 
the expedition . . . 

' Or gold. ' Ptah or Vulcan. 



20 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

LINE 

10 Two Chiefs of the Rutennu, children 

11 acres 1800 for the land of the divine supplies of oxen, 
geese bread 

12 A sacrifice of bulls and calves . . . 

13 which father Amen-ra had ordered . . . 

14 The exhibition was in the .... 

FRAGMENT .,. 

LINE 

1 made His Majesty to the god of the gates of Thebes 

2 the name on it, in electrum, gold, and black metal, 

3 The first gate of Ra-men-kheper, Amen-serfau :' the 
second gate of Ra-men-kheper, Khent-kher-amen : 
the third gate of Ra-men-kheper, Amen-ur-bau inlaid 
with real electrum he made Truth to go in it. 

FRAGMENT 3. 

LINE 

I a grand harp made of silver, gold, lapis glass, turquoise 
and all precious stones. 

HORIZONTAL LINE 

1 The living god, who has appeared in the Thebaid the 
King of Upper and Lower Egypt, the absolute Lord, 
Ra-men-kheper Son of the Sun, of his loins, Thothmes 
(III) the most perfect of beings .... 

2 His Majesty has ordered to be inscribed the victories 
which his father Amen-Ra gave him on the stone wall 
in the Temple made by His Majesty .... as also 
the spoil taken by His Majesty. 

' These are the names of the Gates. . 



THE STATISTICAL TABLET. 



1 The 29th year His Majesty marched to the land of 
Tunaputa to chastise the revolted countries in his 5th 

expedition. The King took the place of Ua 

.... the army congratulated the King and gave thanks 

2 to Amen-Ra for the victories which he had given his 
son, which the King valued more than anything else. 
After that His Majesty passed to the place of offerings 
he offered a sacrifice to Amen-Ra in the Horizons, of 

oxen, calves, waterfowls in the name of 

Ra-men-kheper the ever living. Enumeration of the 
spoil taken from that land 

3 of the race of the fallen of Tunep, the Prince of that 
town I, warriors 329, silver 100 pounds (7>«)' gold 100 
pounds, lapis lazuli, turquoise, vases of bronze, of metal 

They were placed in the boats .... laden 

with all sorts of things, male and female slaves, iron, 
lead, and asmar ' . . . 

4 of all sorts of good things. Then His Majesty sailed 
back to Egypt . delighted in heart. He despoiled 
the land of Anita' of all its grain and cut down all 

its parts Then His Majesty found the land 

of of the Tahai throughout : their magazines 

were full of their com. Were found 

5 their wines abundant in their wine presses like waves, 
their corn was in heaps of abundant grain, for provisions. 
The army was satiated with all sorts of things. The 
enumeration of the spoil brought away by His Majesty in 
that expedition was male and female slaves 51, cattle 32, 
silver cups 12, 

6 of incense, balsam, honey, amphoras * 170: of wine, 

* The Ten^ weighed about 1400 grs. troy. ' Emery. ^ Aradus. 

* A vase called meji, or amphora in which wine was brought. 



2 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

IE 

amphoras 6428, iron, lead, lapis lazuli, and felspar, oxen 
618, goats 3,636, bread and cakes various, corn, barley, 
flour. Then the soldiers of His Majesty measured every 
day their rations 

as in the festivals of Egypt. The 30th year then 
His Majesty went forth to the Rutennu ' in his 6th ex- 
pedition, he approached the town of Katesh His Majesty 
pillaged it, and spoiled the magazines and took away 

all the grain. He went to the land of tu, 

he reached the towns of Simyra and Arattu ' and 
treated them in the same manner. The amount of the 
tributes 

brought to the Spirits of His Majesty in that year by the 
Princes of the Rutennu, the sons of the Princes and 
their brothers were brought to be placed in the power 
(of the King and led) to Egypt. If any of the Chiefs 
died, His Majesty made (another) come to be in his 
place. The number of the sons of Princes led that year 

was male and female slaves 181, mares 188, 

chariots 

ornamented with gold, silver and painted 40. The 
year 31, the 3rd of the month Pashons were assembled 
the spoil made by His Majesty in that year and spoils of 
the place Hansatu on the banks of the lake Nesrana, 
men taken alive 490 .... of the sons of die wretched 
Chief of .... 3, Chief of the eunuchs belonging to him 
I. Total 490 persons, mares 20, chariots 13 

provided with all their accessories. As His Majesty 
had taken that town in an instant all was seized and 
carried off The tribute of the Princes of tlie Rutennu, 
who came to prostrate themselves before the Spirits of 
His Majesty in that year male and female slaves .... 

' Syria. ' Aradus ; this variation exists in the original. 



THE STATISTICAL TABLET. 



23 



of that country 72, silver 761 pounds 2 ounces' 

19 chariots ornamented with silver, 

1 1 and provided with all their accessories. Fat bulls' 104, 
young bulls 172, total 276. Goats 4622, iron ore, bricks 

4°, lead gold, armour ornamented with sUids 

42, also all their products, 

1 2 and all the good plants of that country. Every station 
to which His Majesty approached was supplied with 
different kinds of bread, and food, with palm wine, 

incense, wine, honey, figs their number of 

all sorts of things was known to the soldiers of His 
Majesty, nothing was forgotten. 

13 They are placed on the roll of the royal palace, their 
enumeration is not given on this tablet in order to 
avoid a multiplication of words. Their property is given 
at the place where they make The contribu- 
tion of the Rutennu was appointed of a great quantity 
of grain, 

14 corn, barley, incense, fresh dates, wine, fruit, all the 
agreeable things of the country. They were all returned 
to the treasury as enumerated. The product of the 



33, kasam, all the gems of that country also a great 
number of stones (incense) 

15 for burning, and all the good productions of that land. 
His Majesty approached Ta-mera (or Northern Egypt) 
the envoys of the Kanebti^ came having their tribute 

of gums, and male negroes for 

servants 10, bulls .... 

16 young 113, bulls 230, total 343 besides boats laden 

' The A'a^ ounce or drachm weighed about 140 gr. troy. 

' Perhaps Tep, is the buffalo. 

^ Perhaps Kanopus — the word seems to mean "curly haired." 



24 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

LINE 

with ivory, ebony and panther skins and all the products 
of (that country) . ... The tribute of Uaua was . . 
of the Uaua 5, steers 31, bulls 61. Total 92. 

17 besides the boats laden with all the tribute of that 
country the tribute of the Uaiia also. In the year 33 
when His Majesty was in the land of the Ruten (His 

Majesty) approached of that river, he placed 

another where was the tablet of his father 

18 the King of Upper and Lower Egypt Ra-men-kheper- 
KA (Thothmes I). His Majesty sailed to take the 
towns, and plough the country of the enemy of the vile 
Naharaina' in he pursued them for the dis- 
tance of an atur without any one daring to look 

19 him in the face .... except ^s.llle)l bounding along 

like a herd of goats. Then the horses were 

by the whole anny, the Princes 

20 their women 30, men taken prisoners 80, male and 
female slaves and their children 606, those who sur- 
rendered, their women he carried off their 

grain. His Majesty then came to the city of 

21 Ninii' on his return. Then His Majesty set up his 
tablet in Naharaina* to enlarge the frontiers of Kami' 

The tribute brought by the Princes of that 

country ivas 

22 male and female slaves 513, mares 260, gold, pounds 45 
ounces 1 9, silver and gold vases of the workmanship of 
the Tahai .... chariots with all their equipments, bulls 
and 

23 buffalo' calves 28, bulls 564, goats 5323, incense, am- 

phoras 828, balsam all the delicious products 

of that country and all its very numerous fruits. Behold 

' Nineveh. ° Mesopotamia. » Egypt. 

* Tep, " fat " or " buffalo." 



THE STATISTICAL TABLET. 2? 

LINE 

24 every part was provisioned with all sorts of things ac- 
cording to the rate of the yearly tax. The tribute of 
the land of Remenen' was also according to the rate 
of the yearly tax, and the Princes of the land of Remenen" 
unknown birds 2, geese 4 

25 of that country. Behold it was (supplying) daily. 
The tribute of the prince of Senkara was real lapis 
lazuli pounds 4, artificial lapis lazuli' pounds 24, lazuli 

lazuli of Babalu' of real lapis lazuli, a head 

of a ram of real lapis lazuli 

26 weighing ounces 15, and vases. The tribute of those 
of the great land of the (Khita)* in that year was silver 
rings 8 weighing pounds 301, white precious stone i 

great block, birch wood chariots 

(when the King was returning) towards Egypt after 
having made a campaign 

27 in Naharaina to enlarge the frontiers of Egypt. The 
treasures brought by His Majesty in that year from the 
land of Punt' were gums 1685 haks (bushels), gold 
.... pounds 154, ounces 2, male and female slaves 
134, bulls 

28 calves 114, bulls 305 total 419, besides transports laden 
v«th ivory, ebony, panther skins and all the good things 
of that land. Such was the tribute of Kush. The tribute 
of the Uauat in that year consisted of male and female 
slaves. . . . 8, male negroes 12, total 20 ; bull calves 43, 

29 bulls 60, total 103 besides boats loaded with all the 
good products of that country. Such was the tribute of 
that place. The year 34 behold His Majesty marched 
to the land of the Tahai in his loth campaign behold the 
whole of that laiid surrendered .... The Hst 

^ Armenia. ' Blue gla.ss, or composition. ^ Babylon. 

* It may be the Rutennu ; the name Is wanting. ' Arabia. 



2 6 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 



30 of the places taken in that year, fortresses 2, a fortress 
surrendered in the territory of the Anaukasa, total 3, 
captivesbrought by His Majesty .... taken prisoners 
90, surrendered with their wives 

31 and their children mares 40, chariots orna- 
mented with gold and silver, gold vases and gold in rings 
50 pounds 8 ounces, silver vases of that country and 
rings 153 pounds, bronze .... bull calves 326, white 
goats 80, kids 50, asses 70, a great quantity of birch 
wood' 

32 a tree of that wood, acacia ' wood chairs with their . . 

6 poles for a tent ornamented with bronze and inlaid 
viath precious stones and all the good wood of that land. 
The tribute of the Princes of the land of Rutennu in that 
year was horses . . chariots ornamented in gold silver 
and colours 34, male and female slaves 704, gold 55 
pounds 8 ounces, silver vases various 

2^ of the work of that country weighing . . . pounds, men 
stone, all sorts of gems, vases, copper in ore,' bricks 
80, lead, bricks 11, colours, pounds 100, white incense, 
felspar, alabaster .... bull calves 13, bulls 530, asses 
84, bronze, a quantity of wood and many copper vases, 
perfumes amphoras 695 

34 sweet balsam, and green balsam amphoras 2,080, wine 
amphoras 608, birch wood chariots, and acacia wood 
buckets,' and all the good wood of that country. Each 
of the stations of His Majesty was provided with all 

sorts of good things for His Majesty to receive 

of the land of the Tahai, with cedar wood boats of that 
(country), boats also laden with logs of their woods 

' Called laka, perhaps " yew," iaxus. This came from the Rutennu. 

' Or "cedar." ' Or "of his land." 

' The Coptic Icnikigi. This may be a kind of wood. 



THE STATISTICAL TABLET. 2? 

LINE 

35 great beams for the of His Majesty The Chiefs 

of the land of Asi brought in that year bricks of copper 
io8, sef ' pounds 280, bricks of lead 6, plates of lead 1200, 
lapis lazuli pounds no, tusks .... wood, chairs 2, the 
product of the wretched Kush, calves no, gold pounds 
300, slaves, negroes and negresses, and the daughter 
of a Chief to place in the harem, 

36 total 64, cattle . . . bulls, calves no, total 275, besides 
boats laden with ivory and ebony and all the product of 
that land the quota of Kush was thus. The tribute of the 
Uauat was gold pounds 254, male and female slaves 
captured 10, bull calves . . in all, besides boats laden 
with 

37 all the good things of that country, the quota of Uauat 
was thus. In the 35th year His Majesty was in the land 
of Tahai in his loth campaign His Majesty approached 
the city of Aruana . for behold the miserable Chief of 
Naharaina' had assembled his cavalry and men 

38 from the ends of the land in their great numbers. They 
advanced to fight with His Majesty. His Majesty . . . 
with them. The soldiers of His Majesty made a hasty 
time, waiting to take the spoil. His Majesty prevailed 
over enemies by the Spirits 

39 of Naharaina.' They were repulsed and cut in pieces 
falling one upon another before His Majesty. The num- 
ber of things taken by the King himself from the vile 
country of Naharaina' 

40 Straps of armour 2, brass .... pounds. The number 
of things taken by the soldiers of His Majesty from these 
vile lands, prisoners 10, mares 180, chariots 60 ... . 

' Hardly "oil:" perhaps "bitumen" or " pitch." 
' Mesopotamia. 



28 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

LINE 

41 reins ... 15, brass armour . . . iron .... 

for the head 5, bows of the Kharu 5, the captures made 

^y ■ ■ 

42 . . . 226, chariot inlaid with gold i, inlaid with 
gold and silver 30 .... 

43 gums amphoras or, 

44 the tribute of the .... 



29 



ANNALS OF THOTHMES III. 
TABLET OF THOTHMES III. 

XVIIIth DYNASTY. 



TRANSLATED BY S. BIRCH, LL.D. 



nPHIS Tablet was found at Thebes in the Karnak 
quarter, and it has been pubHshed in the ArcIuEologia 
vol. xxxviii, p. 373 and following, and translated 
by the late Vicomte de Rouge, Rcvuc Archcologique, 
l86l, p. 196 and foil. It consists of a picture repre- 
senting two scenes ; in the first of which Thothmes 
III accompanied by Sem, the goddess of the West, 
offers wine and incense to the god Amen-Ra. The 
goddess Sem or "the West," or perhaps Khaft, holds 
a bow and arrows, a war axe and the emblem of life. 
The text of the inscription is in hieroglyphs. In the 
second picture Thothmes III is also represented as 



30 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

offering incense. In its literary style these annals 
are so strongly poetic that the text may be considered 
to be a kind of hymn or song' recounting the victories 
of the great monarch Thothmes III and the allusions 
to his principal conquests and exploits are in an anti- 
thetical strain. Although it does not add any names 
of conquered places not otherwise found it helps us 
to complete the monumental history of the monarch. 
The Tablet was clearly executed towards the latter 
part of the reign of Thothmes III after the successful 
issues of his principal campaigns and about the time 
of his magnificent donations to the sanctuary of the 
god Amen-Ra at Karnak. The merits of the king 
and his successes are attributed to the Theban god, 
who says that he conferred the power to effect these 
conquests upon his son Thothmes III, in the usual 
style of the speeches often ascribed to the deities on 
the walls of the temples. 



' A poetical translation of this monument is also given in the English 
Edition of Lenormant's Ancient History of the East, Vol. 1. p. 234. 



31 



TABLET OF THOTHMES III. 



The first Scene to the right has the names and title of the 
god Amen-Ra, and King Thothmes III with the in- 
scription 

" Amen-Ra King of the gods Lord of the heaven gives all 
life like the Sun. 

" The Good god, Lord of the Upper and Lower world, 
Lord of diadems, Giver of hfe Ra-men-kheper Thoth- 
mes makes an offering of liquid 

" Khaft Lady of the country " ' 

The second Scene to the left has the inscription 

"Amen-ra King of the gods Lord of the heaven gives 
all life and joy 

" The living Good god, Lord of the Upper and Lower 
world, and Lord of diadems, Ra-men-kheper, Thoth- 
mes, Giver of life, gives incense to Amen-Ra 

" Khaft Lady of the country." 

LINE 

1 The speech of Amen-Ra, Lord of the seats of the Upper 
and Lower world " Come to me, rejoice in seeing my 
perfections, my son, my supporter, Ra-men-kheper, ever 
living I shine as thou wishest ; my heart 

2 dilates at thy happy coming to my temple, my hands 
touch thy hmbs behind with delicious life, thou prevailest 
more than my form ; I am set up 

3 in my hall, I enrich thee and I give thee power and 
victory over all foreign lands. I have given thy spirits 
and the terrors of thee in all countries, the fear of, thee 
every where to — • 

4 the poles of heaven ; I have augmented the terrors of 

' Or Heaven. 



32 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

thee in all bellies ; I have made the roarings of Thy 
Majesty turn back the Nine bow barbarians.' The Chiefs 
of all countries are clasped together in thy fist. 

5 I extend my own hands, I tie for thee, I make a bundle 
of the Annu' by tens of thousands and thousands, the 
people of the North by hundreds of thousands as cap- 
tives. 

6 I have thro\vn down thy enemies under thy sandals, 
thou hast laid prostrate crowds of the obstinate. Also 
I have ordered for thee the earth throughout its length 
and breadth, the West and the East for thy seat ; 

7 thou penetratest all lands the heart joyful, none is re- 
sisting itself to the orders of Thy Majesty. I ordered 
thee in thy passage ; thou approaches! them, thou hast 
navigated the waters of the great Sea and 

8 Naharaina^ with power and victory. I ordered thee that 
they should hear thy roarings in their caverns I deprived 
their nostrils of the breath of life. 

9 I made the victories of Thy Majesty turn back their 
hearts, my diadem was on thy brow, it dazed them, making 
them depart, taking by the hair the Katesh* foreigners. 

10 It burnt all those in their settlements with flame de- 
capitating the heads of the Amu' foreigners, their 
children fell to its power. 

1 1 I made thy power encircle all lands my headdress has 
given light to thy subjects. There is not any rebel to 
thee in the circle of heaven, they come bearing their 
tribute on their backs 

12 beseeching Thy Majesty as I ordered. I made the 
enemies bend before thee, their hearts withered, their 
limbs trembled. 

' A common phrase for the Eastern foreig-ners. 

' Or Petti, the Libyans. ' Mesopotamia. ■• Kadytis. 

^ An Asiatic people. 



TABLET OF THOTHMES III. 33 

13 'I have come I have given thee to smite the Chiefs of 
the land of Taha,° I have placed them under thy sandals ; 
turning back their countries I have let them see Thy 
Majesty, as a Lord of Sunbeams thou shinest in their 
faces like my image. 

14 I have come, I have given thee to strike those who 
belong to the land of Sat,' thou hast taken captive the 
heads of the Amu of Rutennu' they see Thy Majesty 
equipped with thy decorations, thou takest arms com- 
batting in a war chariot. 

15 I have come, I have given thee to smite the East 
thou hast marched in the borders of the land of Taneter* 
they see Thy Majesty like the star Sesht' which gives 
warmth by its fire and gives forth its dew. 

16 I have come, I have given thee to smite the lands of the 
West, Kefa,' Asi* are under the terror of thee, I let them 
see Thy Majesty like a young bull bold in heart with 
pointed horns which nothing can resist. 

17 I have come, I have given thee to smite those who are 
in the seats of the land of Maten,' they tremble through 
fear of thee, I let them see Thy Majesty like the devouring 
crocodile Lord of Terrors in the waters who is inap- 
proachable. 

18 I have come, I have given thee to smite those who 
belong to the Isles in the midst of the great sea with 
thy roarings, I let them see Thy Majesty as a slaughterer 
who rises on the back of his victim. 

19 I have come, I have given thee to smite the Tahennu," 
the isles of the Tena" are prevailed over by thy spirits, 

* Here commences the passage poetized by Lenormant. ' Gaza. 

' The Eastern foreigners or Arabians. * Syria. 

' The Holy Land. ° A comet. ' Phcenicia. * Asia, Assos. 

' Asia Minor. '° Libyans. " Or Uten, Danai or Dauni. 

i 



34 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

I let them see Thy Majesty like a raging lion laying on 
the bodies and mastering their hills. 

20 I have come, I have given thee to smite the extremities 
of the waters, the circuit of the great sea is grasped in 
thy fist, I let them see Thy Majesty as a swooping hawk 
which takes at his glance what he chooses. 

21 I have come, I have given thee to smite those who are 
in (the) estuaries and bind those who are in the sands 
(of the desert)' as living captives, I let them see Thy 
Majesty as a Southern jackal Lord of conducting and 
exploring. Hunter of the upper and lower country. 

22 I have come I have given thee to smite the Anu of 
Kens,' and Remenen ^ is in thy grasp, I let them see Thy 
Majesty like thy two brothers. 

I have laid their hands on thee to give thee power. 

23 Thy two sisters, I have placed them behind thy head 
the arms of my Majesty are over (thy) face to repulse 
evil. I grant protectors to thee oh my beloved son. 
Powerful Bull ' cro^vned in the Thebaid I have begotten 
thee in . ... (says the Lord of the upper and lower 
world) 

24 Thothmes ever living, I have performed all the desires 
of my existence I have set thee up a hall of eternal 
construction longer and larger then ever was, a great 
gateway 

25 Amen-Ra greater than the monuments of 

all the Kings who were, I ordered thee to make it, I am 
pleased with it, I am placed upon the throne of HoRUS 
for millions of years, thy living image for ever and ever. 

' Herusha. ' Nubia. ' Armenia. 

* An Egyptian phrase applied to the king in his divine character. 



35 



ANNALS OF THOTHMES III. 

ACCOUNT OF THE 

BATTLE OF MEGIDDO. 



TRANSLATED BY S. BIRCH, LL.D. 



'T'HE text of this inscription which is given in 
Lepsius Denkmdler records in detail the great battle 
of Megiddo between Thothmes III and one of the 
confederations of the small kings and princes of 
Palestine. This campaign commenced in the 22nd 
year of his reign and the defeat there suffered by the 
allies appears to have assured to Egypt the submis- 
sion of the neighbouring countries and the extension 
of the power of Egypt to Nineveh, and possibly to 
India itself The record of this campaign was placed 
on a wall near the cella subsequently erected by 
Philip II or Arridaeus at Karnak, and it is one of the 
most important hieroglyphic historical texts known. 
Unfortunately it is much mutilated but not so greatly 



36 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

that the reader cannot follow the general sense and 
meaning and supply the defective portions. It has 
been translated in the places already cited the 
Archcsologia and Brugsch, Histoire d'Egypte, p. 95. 
There is only one copy of the text, that of Lepsius, 
but it is well given, and doubts only exist as to the 
proper restoration of its lacunas. The general order 
of these fragments is as follows : I. Lepsius, Dcnk- 
mdlcr iii. 31 b. II. Lepsius, Dcnkmdlcr iii. 31 b. 
III. Lepsius, Dcnki)idlci- iii. 32. IV. Lepsius, Aiis- 
wahl, Taf xii. V. Lepsius, Auswahl, Taf xii. Denk- 
mdlcr iii. 31a. VI. Lepsius, Deitkmdler iii. 30 a. 
VII. Lepsius, Denkmdlcr iii. 30 b. 



37 



FRAGMENT. 

(2) 
Lepsius, Denkmdhr, Abth. iii. Bl. 31b. 



1 The speech. Has been consecrated 

2 from the contribution of each (year). 

3 dwelling (in Thebes) . . . 

4 

5 • 

6 . 

7 

8 bearing tribute . . 

9 the awe of His Majesty in (their hearts) . 

10 to remain in the mouths of the living .... 

11 of all countries, repulser of . . 

1 the HoRUS, the living Sun, the powerful Bull, crowned 
in Uas, the Lord of diadems (whose kingdom has in- 
creased like the sun in heaven 

2 King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the earth, 
Ra-men-kheper), the son of the Sun (Thothmes may 
he live for ever !) 

3 His Majesty ordered to be placed (on the wall ... 
the extent of his power ) 

4 a tablet at this temple which His Majesty made for 

5 ... the expedition in its name, together with the 
tribute and captives brought to it 

6 all (which) he gave to his father the Sun. On the 



38 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

. . day of the month Pharmuthi, of the 22nd year of 
his reign (His Majesty) proceeded from the city) 

7 of Gailu ' in his first campaign to extend the 

8 frontiers of Egypt through the victory (which his father 
Amen-Ra had promised him), 

9 when it was the time appointed for (meeting) ... 

10 hastened each (to take ... to) 

1 1 then .... the warriors and the men . . 

who were 

12 in the fortress of the land of Sharuana,' commencing 
from luruta.' 

13 continuing to the seats of the country were coming to 
rebel against His Majesty. On the 4th of Pashons, of 
the 23rd year the day of the festival of the royal crowns, 
at the 

14 fortress made by the ruler of Katatu 

15 On the 5 th of Pashons entering the place in triumph 
(with power) 

16 defence, and justification to overthrow the vile enemy, 
to extend 

1 7 the confines of Egypt as his father, Amen-Ra, (had pre- 
dicted to him.) 

18 Taking his way on the i6th of Pashons of the 23rd 
year to the fortress of Juhem, proceeded (His Majesty) 

19 discoursing with his brave troops to tell the vile 
(enemies) 

20 of Kateshu* to come and enter Maketa;^ it was 
(done) 

21 at the moment. He reviewed for him the Chiefs of 
the countries (who were) 

' Pelusium or Tsur. 

' Sharon. ' Jericho. * Khodesh or Kadytis. 

' Megiddo. 



iiAlTLE OF MEGIDDO. 39 

2 2 of the race of Egypt, with the Princes of Naharaina' 
(of the Khita), 

23 the Kharui, the Katu," their horses and their army . . . 

24 Inasmuch as he has said, that I stand at (the fortress 
which is) 

25 in Maketa I have told you 

26 They say in reply to His Majesty, what is it like going 
on this road 

27 which leads along so narrow. It has been 

28 say the enemy are there standing on ... . 

29 moreover many, where a horse does not go behind 

30 men also. We are 

31 longing, to fight The enemy were standing at the main 
roads 

32 of Aaaruna ;' they will not fight. Now (as to the course) 
of the main roads 

33 one of the roads, it leads .... us 

34 of the land Aanaka,* the other leads to 

35 the north road of Gevta.^ Let us proceed to the north 
(of) Maketa,' 

36 How will our mighty Lord march on (the way in 
triumph there). Let His Majesty make 

37 us go on that secret road. Were 

38 the guides to overthrow (the vile enemy.) 

39 spoken as before the words of His Majesty were to them 

40 I am the beloved of the Sun, praised by my father 
Amen, renewed by the Sun 

41 with life. I will go on this road of Aa- 

42 runa, if there is any going on it. Be ye on 

43 the roads ye mention, if ye can go on them. 

■ Mesopotamia. ° Syria. 

3 Ajalon. ■* Anakim or Anakites. 

' GazaorGath. ' IWegiddo. 



40 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

44 Ye can follow me. Call they 

45 abominable opposers of the Sun. Because His Majesty 
proceeds in 

46 another direction he fears us. They call out, 

47 saying to His Majesty, "Thy father Amen-Ra, Lord of 
the foundations of the earth, who dwells in Thebes, has 
made thee ; 

48 let us follow thee, wherever Thy Majesty goes. 

49 let us serve behind (thee) (His Majesty went) 

50 in face of the entire army to 

5 1 Amen gave its roads leading to 

52 alive to say. I do not" . . 

53 before His Majesty in ... 

54 coming forth himself before his troops, giving 
(marching) 

55 on foot, there being a horse walking behind (him). 
(His Majesty was) 

56 at the head of his army. On the 19th Pashons of the 
23rd year of his reign, it was watched 

57 at the King's pavilion at the fortress of Aaaruna.' His 
Majesty proceeded 

58 along by boat. His Majesty said I have come bearing 
the commands of my father Amen-Ra, Lord of the thrones 
of the earth .... 

59 before me, oh Sun of the two worlds Harmachis 
(terrifying) gave 

60 ... his father A.men Lord of the thrones of the world 
power and force 

61 over me proceeding. Said . . . (I have come . . .) 
along 

62 with much devastation 

63 the southern tip from A(anaka) . . 

' Ajalon. 



BATTLE OF MEGIDDO. 4I 

64 the northern tip from the southern angle .... 

65 His Majesty in its power in 

66 they will overthrow the enemy . . 



/ " 



42 

FRAGMENT. 

(3) 

Lepsius, Denhndler, Abth. iii., Bl. 32. 

-INE 

1 Aaruna,' the powerful troops of His Majesty followed 
to (the valley of) 

2 Aaruna," the van coming forth to the valley (of Aaruna). 

3 They filled the gap of that valley, and were saying to 
His Majesty 

4 would His Majesty proceed with his valiant archers 
who fill (the gap of the valley) 

5 let us listen to our powerful Lord in the .... 

6 let us guard our Lord : his troops and men followed. 

7 (after them). The army advanced after, calling to fight 

8 at the valley of the enemy call we not, we attend . . 

9 our troops firm. His Majesty was beyond them 
(going) 

10 in front guarding the advance of his valiant troops, 
when the capt- 

1 1 ains advanced coming forth on that road ; it was the 
time of 

12 noon when His Majesty reached the south of Maketa 
on the shore of the waters of Kaina,' it being the 
seventh hour from noon. His Majesty pitched (his 
tent) to make a speech before his whole army, saying, 
" Hasten ye, put on your helmets, for I shall fly .to fight 
with the vile enemy on the morning." Therefore was 



13 a rest at the doors of the King's tent, made by the 
baggage of the Chiefs, things of the followers and sup- 

' Ajalon. ° Keneh. 



BATTLE OF MEGIDDO. 43 

plies. Was passed the watch (word) of the army, who say, 
" Firm, firm, watch, watch, .watch actively at the King's 
pavilion." The land of Meru, and those born of the 
South and North have come to address His Majesty. 
Moreover on the 22nd day of the month Mesori, the 
day of the festival of the new moon and laying the royal 
crown, on the morning then in presence of the entire 
army was passed (the watchword) 
14 His Majesty proceeding in his chariot of gold, distin- 
guished by the decorations of work, like the terrible 
HoRUS, the Lord who makes things, like Mentu Lord 
of Uas, like his father Amen-Ra through the might of 
his arms. The south horn of the army of His Majesty was 
at the shore (of the lake) of Kaina,' the northern horn 
(extending) to the North-west of Maketa,' His Majesty 
being in the midst of them, the god Amen being the 
protection in his active limbs, he (wounding them with) 



15 his arms. His Majesty prevailed over them before his 
army. They saw His Majesty prevailing over them, 
they fell prostrate on the (plains) of Maketa' on their 
faces through terror ; they left their horses, their chariots 
of gold and silver which drew them, and were drawn in 
their clothes to that fortress. The men shut up in that 
fortress took off 

16 their clothes to haul them up to that fortress. Then 
the troops of His Majesty took no heed of capturing the 
things of the fallen. The (army reached) Maketa' at the 
moment when the vile enemy of Kateshu and the vile 
enemy of the fortress were striving to let them enter 
the fortress. His Majesty frightened (them) 

17 their amis, he prevailed by his diadem over 

them. Their horses and their chariots of gold and of 

' Keneh. ' Megiddo. 



44 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

silver were captured, were brought (to His Majesty) 

their (dead) lay in ranks ' like fishes on the 

ground. The great army of His Majesty turned away 
from counting the things captured. Then the camp was 
captured in which was (his) son 

i8 of his whole army in joy giving thanks. (His 

Majesty ordered) should be given to his 

son (the troops) of His Majesty, praising his power. 
They were bringing the spoil they took of hands, living 
captives, horses chariots of silver, and gold of . . . 

19 the words of his troops in saying make ye ready . . . 
power .... give ye . ... the Sun upon that day, 
inasmuch as every Chief of the countries and places 
came rebellious into it, inasmuch as the fulness of a thou- 
sand fortresses, is the fulness of Maketa, the fulness 
worked by the Sun (in heaven) 

20 the Chief of his troops to return 

all . . his place . . they measure the fortress . ... 
in (or of ) ditches .... laden with the green wood of 
their beautiful woods. His Majesty delighting himself 
with the eastern citadel of the fortress to watch 

21 with the wall of the tower his tower 

which he made in the name of Ra-men- 

KHEPER-UAH-SAT (Holder of the plains of the Sati,') giving 
persons to watch at His Majesty's doors, saying to them, 
Steady, steady, watch, watch. His Majesty 

22 them outside which was behind this wall, 

guiding them to come forth to attack the gate of their 
citadel. For His Majesty strengthened this fortress 
against the vile enemy, and his vile troops placed on the 
day, in his name, in the name of the port of . nnat .... 

23 their placed on a roll of leather in the temple 

of Amen, on that day. Then the Chiefs of that land came, 

' Or "quivering." " East. 



BATTLE OF MEGIDDO. 45 

(bringing the usual tribute), adoring the spirits of His 
Majesty, asking breath for their nostrils of the greatness 
of his power and the importance of his spirits ... 

24 came to his spirits, having their tribute of 

silver, gold, lapis lazuli, turquoise' and alabaster, vessels 
of wine, flocks to the army of His Majesty, making the 
prisoners bear the tribute in the galley, when His Ma- 
jesty faced the Chiefs as aforesaid of 

25 living captives 240, hands 83, mares 2041, 

fiUies igi, cattle 6,' plants chariots plated with 

gold, an ark of gold of the enemy, an excellent chariot 
plated with gold of the Chief of 

26 892 chariots of his vile ai-my, total 924 ; i excellent 
suit of brazen armour of the enemy, a brass suit of armour 
of the Chief of Maketa, 200 suits of armour of his vile 
army, 502 bows, his delight, 7 poles of the pavilion of 
the enemy plated with silver. Then the army took 



27 . . . . .... 296, bulls 1,949, great she goats 

2,000, white goats 20, 500. The total amount of things 
led behind by His Majesty from the things of the place 
of the enemy (who was in the land of the Ruten), from 
the fortress of Nunaa, from the fortress of Anaukasa, 
from Hurankar, with the things which belonged to the 
fortresses placed in the waters brought by 

28 38 of their family, 87 sons of Chiefs of the 

enemy and of the leaders with him 5, others, slaves, 
male and female, including children, 1796, prisoners 
who surrendered starved out of the enemy 103 ; total 
2503 ; besides gems, gold dishes, and various vases 

29 . . . a great cup the work of the Kharu,' dishes 

. . . various vases, for drinking, having great stands, 

' Or " glass " or blue porcelain. " Ahnr, " bulls " or " stallions." 

^ Syria. 



46 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

97 swords weighing 1784 pounds, gold in rings fashioned 
by the hand of the workman, and silver in rings 966 
pounds, I ounce, a silver statue made 

30 the head of gold, seats of 77ien of 

ivory, ebony and cedar, inlaid with gold, chairs of the 
enemies 6, footstools belonging to them 6, 6 large tables 
of ivory and cedar inlaid with gold and all precious 
stones, a stick in shape of a sceptre' of that Chief, inlaid 
with gold throughout" . . statues 

31 of the fallen Chief, of ebony inlaid with gold, of which 

the heads are of gold . . . . that vessels of 

brass, an infinite quantity of the clothes of the enemy. 
When the fields of the district were taken to calculate 
their produce to the King's house, to lay down their 
quota, the total of the quantity brought to His Ma- 
jesty from the plains of Maketa was . 280,200 bushels 
of corn, 

32 besides what was cut and taken away. His Majesty's 

army came the tribute of the Ruten on the 

40th year, brought by the Chief of As-suru,' i great 
stone of lapis lazuli, weighing 20 pounds 9 ounces, 
2 stones of true lapis lazuli, total 3 ; 30 pounds of 

. total 50 pounds 9 ounces, good lapis lazuli of 
Babel, 3 heads * vases of Assuru of stone 

33 very many, the tribute of Chiefs of the Rutennu,' 
the daughter of a Chief, ornaments silver, gold, lazuli 
lapis of the country . . . persons ... 30, the slaves 

male and female of its tribute 65, gold chariots 

100, boxes of gold 4, a chariot of (silver inlaid) with 

pure gold'' with boxes of studs 5, total 10 ; 

buffalo steers 45, bulls 500, (total) 1200 

' Karukm-ii, or " cylinder." ° " Besides g-reat sword handles." 

' Assyria. ■• Or "covers" or "handles." 

5 Syria. ' Gam, or uasm " electrum," or according to some "copper." 



BATTLE OF MEGIDDO. 47 

34 which could not be weighed, silver dishes and beaten 
out plates 104 pounds, 5 ounces, a gold makargina ' in- 
laid at the border with lapis lazuli, a brass armour 
bordered with gold .... a brass . silver . numerous 
suits of armour, 

35 823 amphoras of incense, 17 18 amphoras of wine, and 
honey . . . numerous, cut and set studs, ivory, and 
cedar, sycamore a vast quantity of firewood all the best 
of that country 

36 by all the places which His Majesty went round given 
in his camp. In the 42nd year the amount of the tribute 
brought by the spirits of His Majesty from the land of 
the Ruten, the tribute of Assum was h(orses) 

37 bracelets of the leather of a masha, bolts of a chariot 
with the heads of wood 170 shekels (or rings) 

38 343, 50 cedars, 190 mulberry trees, 205 vines, 

fig trees 340, 20. 

39 willows 3000 various vases. 

' Or kamarigina — a "breast plate,*' or "covering" of some kind of a 
person. 



48 



FRAGMENT. 

(5) 
Lepsius, Denkmdler, Abth. iii. Bl. 31 a. 

Auswahl, xii. 1. 42-54. 

LINE 

1 ... gold . . . 

2 shekels (rings), tata, abha stone," stibium, gums . . 
cattle of the country, wood for burning, the work of the 
vile Kush, 80 pounds i ounce of gold . . . o male 
and female slaves, cattle steers (beside boats laden with) 

3 ivory and ebony, and all the products of that land the 
quota (of the Kush in that year was) ... 34 negro 
slaves, male and female, 94 bulls and steers besides 
boats laden with all good things. The quota of the 
Uauat was . . (Then His Majesty was) 

4 in his 13th expedition. His Majesty destroyed 

(in the) confines of Anaukasa. The amount of the 
captives brought by the army from the confines of the 
Anaukasa was 50 living captives, horses . . chariots 

. . in 

5 utensils, men surrendered of the territory of Anaukasa 

. the tribute brought to His Majesty's spirits in 
that year was 327 horses {marcs) 522 slaves male and 
female, 9 chariots inlaid with gold and silver, painted 61, 
total 70, a collar (of lapis lazuli) .... a goblet, dishes, 

6 heads of goats, and head of a lion, vases the work of 
the Gahai" .... 2821 pounds 3 ounces, with 276 of 
bricks of the iron in its land ^ 47 bricks of steel, 656 
jars of incense, 3 jars of svi'eet and green dates, 1752 
amphoras of oil, 156 jars of wine, 12 bulls, ... 46 
asses, I deer. 

' Or "glass," aba-geeiic, copt. 
' Or Tsaha, a port of Phoenicia. ' Or " metal ore." 



BATTLE OF MEGIDDO. 49 

1 5 tusks of ivory, a table of ivory and cedar, w/iiYe 
manna 68 pounds .... 21 (suits of armour) spears, 
shields and bows .... all kinds of weapons and fragrant 
wood of that country, all the best products of that 
country. Then came every city supplying all good 
things according to the rate of their yearly produce in 
.... a galley the work of the Remenu' 

S likewise the quota of the Gahai in corn, green dates, 
and incense . . . the tribute brought by the Chief of 
the Asi out of his land . . was the iron of his country' 
. . . (bricks), 3 horses. The tribute of the Chief of 
Arurekh' in that year was male and female slaves, 2 bricks 
of the iron' of his country, 35 logs of cedar wood, with 
all the fragrant wood of his countiy . ( There was) brought 
to the spirits of His Majesty from the land of Punt' 

9 gums 240 sa measures, the work of the vile Kush gold 
100 pounds . . . . 6 . . . 36 negro slaves male and 
female in steers, 185 bulls, total 306, besides boats 
laden with ivory and ebony and all the good products 
of that land with the quota of that land the work of the 
Uauat . . . . 2844, male and female slaves 

Negroes 16, steers 77, besides (boats) laden with all 
the good products of that land. In the 39th year His 
Majesty was in the land of the Rutennu ' in his 14th 
campaign after he went .... the fallen of the 
Shasu.' The amount (of tribute brought by) .... 
(was) 197 male and female slaves 

1 229 mares, gold dishes with handles 12 pounds . . . 
ounces, real (lapis lazuli) 30 pounds, silver dishes, a 
goblet a vase in shape of the head of a bull, 325 various 
vases with silver in rings making 1497 pounds i ounce, a 
chariot .... making 

Annenla. ' Or " in its ore." ' ErecVi. ■* Or " metal in its ore." 
' Arabia. ' Northern Syria and Mesopotamia. ' Arabs. 



50 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

12 white precious stone, white manna,' natron, and all the 
various precious stones of (that) land . . . incense, sweet 
dates, fresh dates, oil, honey (amphoras) 364, 1405 jars 
of wine, 84 bulls 1283 little goats (kids) brass .... 

13 . . of that land with all the products of that land. 
Then came every city, supplying all good things according 
to their rate of the yearly contribution navigating .... 
Horizon like the amount of . . . . (the tribute 

T4 of the land of Gahai (was) corn, incense dates, wine 



' Or "white cornelian," or "alabaster." 



51 



FRAGMENT. 

(6) 

Lepsius, Denkmdler, Abth., iii. Bl. 30 A. 

LINE 

1 of the Asi, 2 tusks of ivory, 40 bricks of 

iron, I brick of lead, the tribute 

2 (of Kush) that year, 144 pounds, 3 ounces of gold, loi 
negro slaves, male and female bulls. 

3 35 steers, 54 bulls, total 89, besides boats 

laden with 

4 2 pounds, the amount of tribute of the Chiefs 

of the Rutennu' brought by His Majesty's spirits (in that 
year). 

5 40 bricks, falchion of steel, brass spears. 

6 18 tusks of ivory, 241 mares, 184 bulls 

. goats. 

7 incense; also the tribute of the Chief of tlie 

great Khita in that year was gold. 

8 96 pounds, 2 ounces, negroes, 8 slaves, 13 boys for 
servants total 2 1 ; bulls. 

9 3144 pounds of gold, 3 ounces, 35 steers, 

moreover boats laden with ivory. 

10 His Majesty went on the road of (towards) 

the haven, destroying the fort of Aranatu ' and the 
fortresses of 

1 1 Kanana,' laying waste the fort with its mound, ap- 
proaching the land of Tunep, he laid waste the fort, took 
its com, cutting down its groves. 

12 and those alive of the troops, bringing them along in 

' Syria. '' Orontes. ' Canaan. ■ 



52 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

peace, approaching the confines of Kateshu, taking the 
fortresses in it 

13 The number of the vile Naharaina ' who were given up 
with their horses, 391 slaves, 39 hands, 44 mares. 

14 in that year 205 male and female slaves, 67 

horses, 3 gold dishes, 3 silver dishes, 3 craters, a table 
with silver 

15 47 bricks of lead, I TOO pounds of lead, colours, 

asmar,' all the gems of the country, brass suits of armour, 
utensils .... 

16 all the excellent wood of that country. Then came 
every city contributing all good things according to the 
rate of their yearly produce. The quota of the country 
of 

17 with dishes, heads in shape of bulls, weighing 

341 pounds 2 ounces true lapis lazuli, i stone weighing 42 
pounds,' a good cedar chair, iron of his country. 

18 of Tanai,* a silver jug of the fabric of the 

Kefau,' with 3 vases of iron, with silver handles, weigh- 
ing 56 pounds . . 

19 with all the good things of that land. The quota of 
the vile Kush also the work of the Uat in that year was 
gold 2374 pounds i ounce. 

20 Va. Then His Majesty ordered that the 

extent of his power which he had made, commencing in 
his 2 1 St and continuing to his 32 nd year, should be 
recorded, and this table was set up at the sacred gate ; 
to make him a giver of life for ever ! 

' Mesopotamia. 

° Asmar, " emery." ' Literally 42 ounces, but an evident error. 

* Danai. s Ph<Enicia. 



S3 



FRAGMENT. 

(7) 

Lepsius, Denkmdler, Abth. iii. Bl. 30. b. 

LINE 

1 from the land of the Ruten, from the station 

built by His Majesty belonging to him. The Chiefs 
of the Remenn were pleased that its name should be 
that of" Ra-men-kheper (Thothmes III) chastising the 
" Then approached the Chiefs of the cities 

2 .... the land. I celebrated to him the festival of 
the campaign also, when I came from the first campaign 
from overthrowing the vile Rutennu, and extending the 
frontiers of Kami. 

In the 23rd year of power, I (celebrated) to him 

3 (the festival, making it to coincide) with the first festival 
of Amen-Ra, performing it for 5 days. The second 
celebration of the festival of the campaign occupied one 
day of the god, corresponding with the celebration of 
the second festival of Amen, making the performance 
for 5 days. The third festival of the campaign coincided 
with the fifth festival of Amen Ra, giving life 

4 .... a great sacrifice for the festival of victory which 
I made anew, of bread and beer, cows, calves, bulls, 
geese, white antelopes, gazelles, oryxes, incense, wine, 
fruit, white food, bread and all (good and pure) things 

5 year .... on the 14th day of the month 

Choiak, when the person of that noble god is drawn rowed 
out of his Southern Thebes. I made to him a great 
sacrifice on the day when he returned to his southern 



54 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

quarter, consisting of bread and beer, cows, calves, bulls, 
geese, frankincense, and wine 

6 on the first campaign he let me fill his 

tabernacle, for his people to make for him fine white 
linen fabrics and dresses for stocking working the plains 
to make (clothes) to fill the press of his (temple). 

7 me His Majesty on the good path. The 

number of doorkeepers, male and female negroes and 
negresses, which I gave to my father Amen-Ra, beginning 
on the 23rd year (of my reign) and terminating on the 
setting up of this tablet at this temple, filling the cells, 
amounted to 878. 

8 north and south, two milch cows of cattle of 

the Gahai, one milch cow of the cattle of Kush, total 
four milch cows, to supply the milk kept in pails of gold 
at sun-set daily (to make) the rites of my father Amen- 
Ra 

9 I gave to him three fortresses of the Upper 

Rutennu ; Anaukasa is the name of one, Junu(m)a' the 
name of another, Hurankalu the name of another ; com- 
pelled to supply a yearly contribution for the sacred 
food of my father Amen Ra. 

10 all (the work) of silver, gold, lapis lazuli, 

and turquoise. I gave to him gold, silver, lapis lazuli, 
turquoise, brass, iron, lead, armour, and very many . . . 
... to make the monuments of my father Amen Ra. 

11 also I gave him pairs of geese to fill the 

lakes, to supply the sacred food daily, for I have given 
him two trussed geese at sunset daily, a charge to remain 
for ever. 

12 of various loaves bread 1000 portions. I 

ordered this offering of sacred food of different kinds of 
loaves 1000 portions to be doubled when I went to attack 

' Janoah. 



BATTLE OF MEGIDDO. 55 

the Rutennu in the first campaign, rendering thanks in 
the great temple of the Ra-men-kheper (Thothmes III), 
the splendour of edifices. 

13 632 of various bread in loaves for the daily 

festivals, besides what was before. I assigned to him 
very many fields and cultivated gardens selected from 
the north and south to make a tract to supply corn 

14 during the year, of bread and beer, cows, 

calves, bulls, geese, incense, wine, fruit, and all good 
things, charged on the yearly produce. I augmented 
the food and drink to make a thanksgiving as father 
Amen had ordered at sun-rise. 

15 I gave him divine offerings of bread and beer 

giving him thanks on the daily festival that of the 6th 
of the month, as was done on the . . Then I found 
a good to plough the corn (in the fields) 

1 6 . ... I added sacred offerings of food and drink to 
the four great obelisks which I made anew a gift to my 
father (Amen consisting) of loo rations' of different 
kinds of bread and 4 draughts of beer, of which each 
obelisk had 25 portions of bread and i draught of 
beer. I increased the sacred food of the statues of 

17 placed at the threshold of the door. I increased the 
offerings to him at night (consisting) of various bread 
and beer, geese, incense, wine, white food, bread, and 
all good things offered at sunset daily. I gave more 
than was before. 

18 I augmented to him the offerings at the festival 

of the bringing forth of Khem (consisting) of bulls, 
geese, incense, wine, fruit, and all good things ; the 
things offered amounted to 120 things on behalf of my 



56 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

health. I ordered that a great h in' of wine should be 
added. 

19 charged on the yearly revenue beyond what 

was before. I also made for him a meadow anew to be 
planted with all kinds of excellent trees whence to pro- 
cure vegetables for the sacred meals daily. I augmented 
die gifts beyond what was before. 

20 . . . .in my benefits for the entire earth, when I 
made all the monuments, laws, rites, which I gave to 
Amen-Ra, Lord of the foundations' of the earth who 
dwells in Thebes in the great house for I know his spirits, 
I am acquainted widi his wishes being at rest in the 
midst of the body.' I know 

21 he has ordered to be done, all things he has 

wished done, according to the intentions of his mind, 
my heart prompting my arm to act for my father. I 
de\ise to make all things for my father. 

22 I creating all things, enlarging the 

monuments, placing, increasing in proportion, purifying, 
dedicating, and supplying this temple of my father Amen- 
Ra, Lord of the foundations of the earth who dwells in 
Thebes, in all directions . ... 

23 to him daily when I ordered to supply the fes- 
tivals from the beginning of the year to the end of the 
year, to open the court of my father Amen-Ra, who 
dwells in Thebes when I directed that the things should 
be prepared for the libations and incense. 

24 charged on the yearly revenue. I do not 

say the contrary to boast of what I have done, saying 
that I have done more when I do it not, so causing men 
to contradict it. I have done these (things) appointed 
by my father Amen-Ra. 

' Jar, about S pint. ' Or thrones. 

' I.e. "of his heart." 



BATTLE OF MEGIDDO. 57 

25 declaring works which have not been done to 

him. Inasmuch as heaven knows it, earth knows it, the 
whole world sees it hourly. I have lived beloved of the 
Sun, praised by Amen-Ra, my father. My nostril is 
renewed with life. I have done what is proper (to 
him. ) 

26 be awake on guard unceasingly for all your 

dues pure and clean of divine things watch ye in the 
hours when they come in your heart, close your mouth, 
let each look to his foot ; 

27 ordering my images to be carried in procession 

across the monuments I made. I sent to you (oh 
images) to come before, celebrating the festival at the 
door of his house ; clothing our images with clothes. 
Likewise I filled the treasuries with 

28 I have presented with all kinds of vegetables ; 

likewise cleansed the meadow anew. I stocked the se- 
lected fields, which I charged on the annual revenue with 
cattle. I filled the altar with milk. There was frankin- 
cense (infinite). 

29 tables of silver and gold to hold in your 

hands my images, when I took my male issue to bring 
forth my statues the day of carrying my images in 
procession ; asking my father to count the works which 
I had made in 

30 bread as aforesaid at sunset daily beyond 

what was before, 3305 rations, of various bread for the 
sacred food; 132 draughts of beer, 2 tahut ' of corn, 2 
measures of corn, 2 measures of dates geese. 

31 geese, pigeons, 5 aab of incense, 2 jars of wine, 

4 pecks of honey, fruit, manna, a /^a;Ta^ of beer, 3 heaps of 
flour and bread to the amount of 15 bushels, green . . 

. . . flesh 

' Pyramids. 



S8 RECORDS or THE PAST. 

32 2 oryxes, 6 gazelles, 9 goats, 125 geese,' 

1 100 pairs of geese of another kind, 258 pairs of pigeons, 
5237 pigeons of another kind, 1140 jars of wine, 4 
obelisks of incense, 319 pyramidal piles of food, incense. 

33 103 bushels of incense, making 314 pet of 

incense, 3 1 amphoras of green frankincense, 5 bushels of 
gums 236 meals of bulls, 258 meals of geese, 24 obelisks 
of food, 562 pyramidal cakes 

34 The restoration of this monument was made by the Ra- 
SER-KHEPERU, whom the Sun has chosen (Horus) to his 
father Amen-Ra, Lord of the earth's foundations ; he 
may be a giver of life like the Sun. 

' Or "ganders,'' 



^ 



59 



ANNALS OF THOTHMES III. 



INSCRIPTION OF AMEN-EM-HEB. 



TRANSLATED BY S. BIRCH, -LL.D. 



'T'HIS Inscription was found in the walls of a tomb 
at Gournah. Published and translated by Dr. G. 
Ebers, Zeitschrift fi'ir cigyptische, Spi-achc und Alter- 
tJmmskimde, 1873, S. 1-9 and S. 63, 64 ; and by M. 
Chabas, Melanges Egyptologiqucs, Tom. II. 1873, p. 
279-306 ; Academic dcs Inscriptions ct des Belles lettres. 
Comptes rendues Paris Tom. I. 1873, p. 155. This im- 
portant tablet gives the date of the reign of Thothmes 
III which was upwards of 53 years as the king 
died on the 30th Phamenoth, in the 54th year of his 
reign, evidently having been a mere child when he 
ascended the throne. 



6o RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

The events recorded in it complete the account of 
those described in the Statistical Tablet, Amen-em- 
heb having been engaged in some of the campaigns 
mentioned in the Tablet, and brought back portion of 
the spoil. This inscription with that of Aahmes and 
the tomb of Rekmara helps to complete the history 
of the reign of Thothmes III. 



^ 



6i 



INSCRIPTION OF AMEN-EM-HEB. 



1 I was the better part of the Ruler Hving and well, the 
half of the heart of the King of Upper Egypt, the glory 
of the heart of the King of Lower Egypt, I followed 

2 my Lord at his footsteps in the land of the north and 
south as he wished, I was accompanying his feet, I did 
not leave him 

3 out of sight, his power and his valour were intrepid. I 
took spoil in that land of 

4 Kabu,' I led thence Amu' 3 persons, living captives. 
When His Majesty approached Naharaina ' 

5 I took 3 persons as my spoil thence, I set them before 
Thy Majesty as living captives. 

6 Again I took spoil at the expedition in the vicinity of 
the land of Uan* on the west of Kharubu,' I brought 

7 Amu living prisoners 13 persons, 70 live asses, 13 
weapons of brass and weapons inlaid with gold : 

8 I again took spoil in the expedition of the land of 
Karukamasha,' I led thence . . . persons 

9 living captives, I transported them on the waters of 
Naharaina,' they were in my hand as slaves. 

10 (I set them) before my Lord. He rewarded me with a 
great reward, the amount (was) a chain 

1 1 (of gold). Again I saw the power of the King of Upper 
and Lower Egypt Ra-men-kheper (Thothmes III) the 
giver of life in the land of Sentaru' he made 

' Unknown. ' Asiatics. ^ Mesopotamia. 

* Uan, or Van. ' The Chalybes or Aleppo. ' Carchemish. ' Singar. 



62 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

12 (they) were captured by me before the King ; I brought 
a hand thence. He gave me gold for my reward, the 
amount (was) a gold chain 

13 and 2 silver rings. Again I saw his valour I was 
among his followers capturing 

14 Kateshu,' I did not leave the place where he was, I 
led officers 2 persons, (living prisoners I placed them) 

15 before the King the Lord of the two worlds Thothmes 
ruler of the Thebaid, the ever-living he gave me gold for 
(my) valour before all persons, 

16 the amount (was) a gold chain, the buckle (in shape) of 
a lion, 3 collars, 2 flies, and 4 bracelets. I saw my Lord 
in 

17 in all his forms in the confines of the land 

of (Ga .... 

18 ha . and again he gave me. I was raising 

my (for). 

19 I again saw his might in that land of Takhisa (I 
brought thence) the hand of a dead man 

20 I spoiled it before the King, I brought three Amu as 
living prisoners, gave to me 

21 my Lord gold for a reward, the amount was 2 gold 
collars, 4 bracelets, 2 flies, a lion for my person. 

22 Again I saw a second time a good work done by the 
Lord of the two countries in the land of Nil ' he hunted 
1 20 elephants on account of their tusks ; of (them was) 

23 captured the largest one which was among them he 
rushed in front of His Majesty I cut his hand,' he 
fell alive in my power. 

24 I went also in the water which is between the two rocks, 
my Lord rewarded me with gold. 

25 He gave me dresses, three pairs. The King 

of Kateshu made a mare come forth 

' Kadesh, or Kadytis. ' Nineveh, or else India. ' His trunk. 



INSCRIPTION OF AMEN-EM-HEB. 63 

26 in front (against His Majesty). She ran in the midst of 
my troops, I followed after her 

27 on foot having my weapon. I ripped up her belly, 
I cut off her tail, I gave 

28 it to tlie King, praised be god for it. He gave me joy, 
it filled my belly with delight it united my limbs. 

29 His Majesty ordered that all the valour of his troops 
should be exerted to open the new walls at Kateshu, I 

30 broke them open, I led all the valiant. No other 
person went before me, I brought officers 

31 two living prisoners. Again His Majesty ordered that I 
should be rewarded on account of it .... in all 

32 good places, giving satisfaction to the heart of His 
Majesty that I had made this capture. I was Captain 
(of the .... boat) 

33 I ordered the towing in at the head of his 

companions 

34 in rowing [the boat] in the good festival of (Southern) 
Thebes to the place of mankind in joy. 

35 So the King ended his time of existence of many good 
years of victory, power and was made 

36 justified, commencing at the ist year and ending at 
his 54th year in the 30th of the month Phamenoth of 
the reign of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt 

37 Ra-men-kheper Thothimes (HI), justified, he ascended 
to heaven, and joined the Sun's disk a divine follower, 
urgent in doing, it shone to him as the morning, he was 

39 the disk of the Sun coming out of the heaven. The 
anointed King of Upper and Lower Egypt Ra-aa-khe- 
peru the Son of the Sun Amenhetep (H) the giver of life 

39 was established on the throne of his father he rested 
in the royal residence, all invaders he thrust back, the 
Kau- .... 

' "Miserable." 



64 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

40 of the land of Tert (Teshr) he hewed off the heads of 
their chiefs, crowned as HoRUS the son of Isis, he took 

41 (possession of) that land. The inhabitants of the land 
of Kenem,' every land bowed to his spirits, their tribute 
was on their backs 

42 he gave them the breath of life. His Majesty saw me 
for I led him in his boat (on the river) 

43 (Shaa) ta-em-ua' was its name. I nias rowing it with 
my hands in the good festival of Southern Apt^ also I 
arranged 

44 . . . I went also into the harem of the palace, I was 
allowed to stand in presence of the King of Upper and 
Lower Egypt Ra-aa-kheperu (Amenophis II). It was 

45 an honour. I was bowing myself forthwith before His 
Majesty. He said to me, I know about thee. It has 
been told me all thou hast done 

46 following my father. Given to thee for an honour that 
thou hast commanded the troops, as was said, watch 
over the valiant troops of the King. The officer Mahu 
perfor7ned all his words.' 

The word may mean vineyards. 

M. Cliabas reads "crowned in the boat of Ma." It is perhaps 
" crowned by Truth." 

' A part of Thebes. 

* Or, " Be a true (faithful) officer doing all his words." 



6s 
THE THIRD SALTIER PAPYRUS. 



THE WAR OF RAMESES II. 

WITH 

THE KHITA. 



TRANSLATED BV 

Prof. E. L. LUSHINGTON. 



'T'HIS papyrus is one of several which belonged 
to the late M. Sallier of Aix in Provence, who is said 
to have purchased them of an Egyptian Mariner. 
ChampoUion, who saw enough of it to ascertain its 
general import, quotes some sentences in his Gram- 
mar ; and mentions it in his Letters from Egypt 
(2nd edition, 1833). His pupil Salvolini wrote a 
short treatise Le Campagne de Ramses le gi-and 
contre les Cheta, 1835 which contains an analysis of 
a few sentences ; but the first published attempt to 
translate nearly the whole of the papyrus was made 
by the Vicomte de Rouge in 1856, in a treatise read 
before the Institute of France. In 1858 Mr. Goodwin, 
exercising independent judgment, while mostly con- 
curring with de Rouge, published a version in the 
Cambridge Essays of that year. It has been subse- 



66 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

quently treated in various parts by Brugsch, Mariette, 
Diimichen, and lastly by de Rouge again, with an 
additional page acquired by the Louvre collection 
from the family of M. Raifct its late possessor. Recueil 
de Travaitx, etc., 1870. 

When the present papyrus was written is a question 
not easily answered. The original composition is 
apparently in the last fragmentary lines of p. 11 as- 
signed to the 7th year of Ramses, 2 years after the 
exploit which it glorifies. De Rouge considers it 
certain that this is a very inaccurate copy of an 
earlier authentic document ; how long an interval lies 
between the two is hard to ascertain, but we know 
the age of the Ramesside dynasties was fruitful in 
authors and copyists. Pentaur, whose name is affixed 
to this document, if he was still, as seems to be the 
case, a well known scribe during the reign of the 2nd 
Ramses' son and successor Be-n-ra, must like his first 
master, have far exceeded the usual number of years 
allotted to man. 

The Chronology of Egyptian history is too much 
disputed a subject for us to name confidently in years 
B.C. an approximate date for this narrative. It may 
however be stated that some of the highest authorities 
regard the great Ramses as the father of the Pharaoh in 
whose time Moses led the Israelites from Egypt. The 
well-attested duration of his reign {66 years) is com- 
puted by Lepsius to extend from 1388 to 1332 B.C. 



67 



THIRD SALLIER PAPYRUS. 



RAIFET FRAGMENT. 

LINE 

1 Several days after that King Ramses was in the town 
Ramses Miamon; 

2 moving northward he reached the border of Katesh ; ' 
then marched onward hke his father 

3 (Mentu, towards) Hanruta.' The ist brigade of 
Ammon,' that brings victory to King Ramses (accom- 
panied him), 

4 he was nearing the town ; then the vile Chief of Cheta 
came ; he gathered (forces) 

5 from the margin of the sea to the land of Cheta ; came 
all the Naharina,* the Airatu, 

6 the Masu, the Kashkash, the Kairkamasha/ the Leka, 
Katuatana, Katesh, Akarita, 

7 Anaukasa, the whole Mashanata likewise, nor left he 
silver or gold in his land, he stript it of all its treasures 
(which) he brought with him. 

^ Katesh or Kadesh, on the Orontes, probably different from any of the 
towns mentioned in Scripture with the same appellation "the holy city." 

' Orontes. 

^ Ammon, chief g-od of Thebes (Diospolis, No-Ammon Nahum 3. 8) in 
compositions of this age appears often as the one Supreme deity. Ra, the 
Sun gfod, and Turn or Atum, the Setting" Sun, are identified with him — 
Mentu is a form of Ra in his warlike attributes- 

" Naharina, Aram Naharain, Gen. xxiv. 10, Deut xxiii. 4, Mesopotamia. 

^ Kairkamasha, Carchemish (2 Chron. xxxv. 10) Gargamish in the 
Assyrian annals, on the road from Katesh to the Euphrates, not to be 
identified with Circesium, 



68 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

LINE 

8 The vile Chief of Cheta with many allies accompanying 
him lay ambushed to northwest 

9 (of Katesh). Now King Ramses was all alone, no 
other with him, the brigade of Ammon marching after 
him : the brigade 

10 (of Ra?) at the dyke west of the town Shabutuna; the 
brigade of Ptah' in the centre, 

1 1 the brigade of Set" on the border of the land of Amairo.' 
Then the vile Cheta Chief made (an advance) 



THIRD SALLIER PAPYRUS.— Page i. 

r with men and horses numerous as sand ; they were 3 
men on a car, they had joined with every champion 

2 of Chetaland, equipt with all war gear, they did not 

they lay in ambush hidden to north-west of 

the town 

3 Katesh ; then they charged the brigade of Ra Har- 
MACHis* in the centre, as they were marching on, and 
feared not to fight. 

4 Foot and horse of King Ramses gave way before them: 
they then took Katesh on the western bank of Hanruta ; 

5 this news was told to the King, then he rose as Mentu, 
he seized his arms for battle, he clutched his 

6 corselet like Bar' in his hour ; the great horse that bore 
him, "Victory in Thebes" his name, from 

^ Ptah ; chief g-od of Memphis, Hephaestus of the Greeks, perhaps a more 
primeval deity than Ammon, and representing a ruder conception. 

^ Set, called also Suti and perhaps Sutech, a destructive and harmful 
power, the Loki of the Egyptian Asgard. The Greeks identified him with 
Typhon. 

3 Amairo, perhaps Amorites. 

* Harmachis, Ilai-w-clitili, Morus or Ra of the two horizons. 

' Bar, a war god of foreign origin, allied to Set in form and properties, 
supposed to be the same as liaal. 



THIRD SALLIER PAPYRUS. 69 

LINE 

7 the stable of Ramses Miamon, within the van. The 
King drew himself up, he pierced the line 

8 of the foe, the vile Cheta : he was all alone, no other 
with him. When he advanced to survey 

9 behind him, he found there encircled him 2500 chariots 
stopping his way out. Every champion 

10 of the vile Cheta and abundant lands with him of 
Airatu, of Maasu, of Patasu, of Kashkash, 

Page 2. 

1 of Iriuna, of Katuatana, of Chirabu,' of Akarita, Katesh, 
Leka, they were 3 men on a car ; they made 

2 (a charge) ; there was no Chief with me, no Marshal, 
no Captain of the archers, no Officers ; fled were my 
troops and horse. 

3 I was left alone of them to fight the foe. Then said 
king Ramses, " What art thou, my father Ammon ? 
what father denies his son ? 

4 for have I done aught without thee ? have I not stept 
or staid looking to thee, not transgressing the decisions 
of thy mouth, nor passing 

5 far astray beyond thy counsels ? Sovran Lord of Egypt, 
who makest bow down the peoples that withstand thee ; 
what are these Amu° to thy heart? Ammon brings 

6 low them who know not God. Have I not made thee 
monuments very many? filled thy temple with my 
spoils ? built thee 

7 houses for millions of years, given treasures to thy 

' Chirabu, satisfactorily identified by M. Chabas with Aleppo. Identi- 
fications have been attempted for several other places or tribes named in 
this record, but they cannot be regarded as certain, 

^ Amu seems to be a name applied by Egyptians to Asiatics in general. 
In page 5, 8, a various reading is found "these impure."' 



JO RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

LINE 

house ? dedicated to thee all lands, enriched thy sacri- 
fices ? I have slain 

8 to thee 30000 bulls, with all wood of sweet scent, good 
incense coming from my hand. The making of thy 
court completed, I have built thee great towers 

9 of stone above thy gate, groves everlasting : I brought 
thee obelisks from Elephantine ; 'tis I who had eternal 
stones carried 

10 guiding for thee galleys on the sea, conveying to thee 
labours of all lands. When was it said such happened 
in other time ? 

Page 3. 

1 Shame on who opposes thy counsels, well to who ap- 
proves thee Ammon ; what thou hast done is from a 
heart of love ; I call on thee my father Ammon ; 

2 I am amid multitudes unknown, nations gathered 
against me : I am alone, no other with me ; my foot 
and horse have left me. 

3 I called aloud to them, none of them heard ; I cried 
to them. I find Ammon worth more than millions of 
soldiers, 1 00000 cavalry, 

4 loooo brothers, striplings, were they gathered all in 
one. No works of many men a\ail, Ammon against 
them : I attain that by the counsels of thy mouth O Ra, 

5 not overstepping thy counsels. Lo, have I not done 
homage to the farthest ends of the land ? My cry rang 
unto Hermonthis : Ra heard when I called, he put 

6 his hand to me : I was glad ; he called to me behind ; 

' Ramses Miamon I am with thee, I thy father 

Ra : my hand 

7 is with thee. I am worth to thee 1 00000 joined in 



THIRD SALLIER PAPYRUS. 7 1 

UNE 

one ; I am Sovran lord of victory, loving valour : if I 
find courage, my heart overflows with joy ; 

8 all my doing is fulfilled." I am as Mentu, I shoot to 
the right, I seize on my left, like Bar' in his fury against 
them : 

9 I find 2500 chariots, I am amidst them, then were they 
overthrown before my steeds ; not one of them found 

10 his hand to fight, their heart shrank within them; their 
hands all dropt, they knew not how to shoot ; 

Page 4. 

1 they found no heart to grasp spear; I made them 
fall into the water as fall crocodiles : they tumbled head- 
long 

2 one over another ; I slew them : my pleasure was that 
none of them should look behind him, nor any return ; 
whoever falls of them 

3 he must not raise himself up. Then the vile Chief of 
Cheta stood amid his army to see the prowess of King 
Ramses. The King was all alone, 

4 no soldiers with him, no horse ; he turned in dread of 
the King. Then he made his mighty men go 

5 in numbers, each one of them with cars, they brought 
all war-harness, the Chief of Airatu, the Chief of Masu, 

6 the Chief of Iriuna, the Leka, the Chief of Tantani, the 
Kashkash, the Chief of Kairkamash, the Chirabu, 

7 the allies of Cheta all banded in one, 2500 chariots. 
Charging the midst of them fiercer than flame I rushed 

8 upon them; I was as Mentu ; I let my hand taste them 
in a moment's space, I hew at them to slay them in 
their seats ; each 

' Bar, a war god of foreign orig-in, allied to Set in form and properties, 
supposed to be the same with Baal. 



72 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

,1NE 

9 one of them called to his fellow, saying, "No mortal 
born is he whoso is among us, Set the mighty of 
strength, 

10 Bar in bodily form: verily whoever comes close to him, 
his hand droops through all his frame, they know not 
how to grasp 

11 bow nor spear when they have seen him." Coming to 
the junction of roads, the king pursued them as a 
griffin. 

Page 5. 

1 I was slaying them, none escaped me : I gave a call to 
my foot and horse, saying, " Be firm, be firm in heart, 

2 my foot and horse ; behold my victory." I was alone, 
TuM (Ammon) my support, his hand with me. Now when 

3 Menna my Squire saw me thus encircled by many 
chariots, he cowered, his heart quailed, 

4 great terror entered his limbs, he said to the King, "My 
gracious Lord, Prince revered, valiant exceedingly, 
protector 

5 of Egypt in day of battle, verily we stand alone 
amid the foe, how make a stand to save breath to our 
mouth ? 

6 how rescue us. King Ramses, my gracious Lord ?" The 
King said to his Squire " Courage, courage, 

7 my Squire, I will pierce them as a hawk ; I will slay 
and hew them, cast them to the dust. What 

8 forsooth to thy heart are these Amu? Ammon brings 
very low them who know not God, who brightens not his 
face on millions of them." King Ramses 

9 dashed into the van, then he pierced the foe, the caitiff 
Cheta, six times, one and all, he pierced them. I was 



THIRD SALLIER PAPYRUS. 73 

LINE 

10 as Bar in his season, prevailing over them I slew them 
none escaped. Then the King called to his archers 

11 and cavalry, likewise to his Chiefs who failed to fight. 
" Naught profits full heart' in you. Is there 



Page 6. 

1 one of them who did his duty in my land ? Had I not 
stood as Royal Master ye were downstricken. I make 
Princes of you always. I set 

2 son in his father's estate ; if any evil comes on Egypt 
ye quit your service 

3 Whoever comes to make petitions I always pay regard 
to his claims. Never any Royal Master did for his 
soldiers what King Ramses 

4 has done for you, I let you sit in your houses and your 
towns ; ye have not performed my hests, my archers 
and cavalry. 

5 I have given them a road to their cities; 

6 Lo, ye have played cowards all together, not one of 
you stood to aid me while I had to fight. Blessed be 
Ammon Tum, 

7 Lo I am over Egypt as my father Ra; there was not 
one of them to observe my commands 

8 in the land of Egypt. O noble feat ! for consecrating 
images in Thebes, Ammon's city : great shame on that 
act 

9 of my foot and horse, greater than to tell, for lo, I 
achieve my victories : 

lo there was no soldier with me, no horseman ; every land 
beholds the path of my victories and might. 

' " Full heart" means I suppose, "devotion to me.'' 



74 records of the past. 

Page 7. 

LINE 

1 I was all alone, no other with me, no Chiefs behind, no 
Marshals, no Captains of the army, no Officers, 

2 all peoples saw and will tell my name to limits of all 
lands unknown. If any warriors, relics of my hand, 
remain, 

3 they will turn at seeing me: if loooo of them come 
upon me their feet will not stand firm, they will fly ; 
whoever would 

4 shoot straight at me, down dropt their arrows, even as 
they approached me." Now when 

5 my foot and horse saw, I was addressed as Mentu, the 
strong sword of Ra, my father, who 

6 was with me in time of need, he made all peoples as 
straw before my horses. They were marching one after 
another 

7 to the camp at eventide ; they found all the tribes 
through whom I pierced strewn in carnage, whelmed 

8 amid their blood, with all brave fighters of Chetaland, 
with children and brothers of 

9 their Chief Morning lighted the field of Katesh ; no 
space was found to tread on for their multitude. 

10 Then my soldiers came glorifying our names to see 
what was done, my cavalry likewise. 

Page 8. 

1 extolling my prowess. "What a goodly deed of valour! 
firm in heart, thou hast saved thy army, thy cavalry, 
son of TuM, 

2 framed by his arms, spoiling Chetaland by thy victorious 
sword, royal conqueror, none is like thee. King fight- 
ing for his host on day of battle. 



THIRD SALLIER PAPYRUS. 75 

,INE 

3 thou great of heart, first in the fi-ay, thou reckest not 
for all peoples banded together, thou great conqueror 
before thy army, in the face of the whole land. 

4 No gainsaying. Thou guardest Egypt, chastisest lands 
of thy foes, bruisest back of Cheta for ever." Then 
the King 

5 addressed his foot and horse, likewise his Chiefs who 
failed to fight : "Not well done of one of you, your 
leaving me alone 

6 amid the foe : there came no Chiefs, Officer or Captain 
of host to aid me. I fought repelling millions of tribes 

7 all alone. ' Victory in Thebes ' and Nehrahruta (my 
horses) they are all I found to succour me. I was all 
alone in the midst 

8 of foes. I will let them eat corn before Ra daily, when 
I am in my royal palace : these are they found in the 
midst 

9 of the foe, and my Marshal Menna my Squire, with 
the officers of my household who were near me, the 
witnesses 

[Q of conflict who saw them fall before the King ; with 
victorious strength he felled looooo all at once by his 
sword of might." 



Page 9. 

1 At dawn he joined in fray of battle; he went terrible to 
fight, as a bull terrible with pointed horns he rose 

2 against them as Mentu ordering the fray, alike valiant 
in entering battle, fighting fierce as a hawk, 

3 overthrowing them as Secret' who sends flames of fire 

' Sechet, a g-oddess " loved of Ptah " often mentioned in connexion with 
fire, inflicting terrific vengeance on evildoers. 



76 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

LINE 

in the face of thy foes; as Ra in his rising at the front 
of dawn, shooting 

4 flames upon the wicked : one man among them calls to 
his fellow, "Mark, take heed, verily Secret the mighty 
is with him ; she guides his horses : her hand 

5 is with him." Whoever approaches sinks to ruin : she 
sends fire to burn their limbs, they were brought to 
kiss the dust. 

6 King Ramses prevailed over them, he slew them, they 
escaped not, they were overthrown under his steeds, 

7 they were strewn huddled in their gore. Then the vile 
Cheta Prince sent to do homage 

8 to the great name of King Ramses. " Thou art Ra 
Harmachis, thou art Set mighty of strength, son of 
Nut, Bar 

9 himself: thy terror is over Chetaland brought low: thou 
had broken back of Cheta for ever and ever." 

lo Then came a herald bearing a scroll in his hand to the 
great name of Ramses, "To soothe the heart of the King, 

Page io. 

1 HoRus, conquering Bull, dear to Ma,' Prince guarding 
thy army, valiant with the sword, bulwark of his troops 
in 

2 day of battle. King mighty of strength, great Sovran, 
Sun powerful in truth, approved of Ra, mighty in 
victories, 

3 Ramses Miamon : The servant speaks to tell the King, 
My gracious Lord, fair son of Ra Harmachis, 

' Ma, pfoddess of truth and justice. The roj'al title of Ramses the 
Great is Ra-itser-ma Setep-en-Ra Mi anion RawessUy "Sun strong in truth, 
approved of the Sun, loved of Ammon, Sunborn." 



THIRD SALLIER PAPYRUS. 77 

4 truly thou art born of Ammon, issue of his body, he gives 
thee all lands together, land of Egypt and land of Cheta, 
they offer 

5 their service beneath thy feet to thee, Ra, prevailing 
over them. Yea thy spirit is mighty, 

6 thy strength weighs heavy on Chetaland ; is it good to 
kill thy servants ? thou exercisest thy might 

7 upon them; art thou not softened ? thou camest yester- 
day and slewest looooo of them ; thou art come to day 

8 victorious King, Spirit glad in battle, 

grant us breath of life." 

9 Then the King rose in life and strength, as Mentu in 
in his season. Then he bad summon all the leaders of 
foot and horse, 

10 his army all assembled in one place to let them hear 
the message sent by the great Chief of Cheta — 

Page ii. 

1 to King Ramses. They answered, saying to the King, 
" Tis very good to let fall thy wrath. Prince, So\Tan 
Lord, 

2 who can soothe thee in thy day of 

anger ?" Then King Ramses gave assent to 

3 their words : he gave his hand in peace, returning to the 
south, passing in peace to Egypt with his Chiefs, 

4 his foot and horse, in life and strength, in sight of all 
lands. Dread of his might is in every heart, he protects 
his army, 

5 all nations come to the great name, falling down and 
adoring his noble countenance. King Ramses reached 
fort Ramses Miamon 

6 great image of Ra Harmachis reposing in the royal 



78 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

.INE 

palace in Thebes, as the Sun's orb on his two-fold 
throne ; Ammon (or the gods) 

7 hailed his form, saying, " Glory to thee. Son loved of 
us, Ramses Miamon (to whom are destined) 

8 festivities for ever on the throne of thy father Tum. 
All lands are overthrown under his feet : he has quelled 
(all enemies)" 

9 Written in the year 7, month Payni, in reign of King 
Ramses Miamon 

[Q Giver of life for ever like his father Ra To 

the Head Guardian of the royal writings by the 

Royal Scribe Pentaur. 



79 



THE 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON, 
KING OF EGYPT. 

XXIInd DYNASTY. 



TRANSLATED BY F. C. COOK, M.A., 

PREACHER AT LINCOLN'S INN, CANON OF EXETER. 

'T'HE inscription of Pianchi Mer-Amon was dis- 
covered at Gebel Barkal, the ancient Napata, in 
the year 1863, and after a short interval its general 
purport was made known to scholars, first by a brief 
account of M. Mariette, Revue Archeologiqiie 1863, 
then by a more detailed notice in the Revue Ar- 
cheologique, 8vo Paris 1865 p. 94 and foil, by M. le 
Vicomte de Rouge, and lately by a series of articles 
in the same review by M. F. Lenormant 1871-2-3. 
An account of it was also given by M Lauth, Sitzungs- 
berichte d. konigk. bayer. Akademie d. Wissenschaften. 
8vo. Munchen 1869 p. 13 and foil. 

A very considerable number of passages are also 
quoted and explained by M. Brugsch in his Hicro- 
glyph-deijiotisches Worterbuch fo. Leipzig 1867-8. 

The text itself however was not published before 
the latter part of the year 1872. But it is now 



8o RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

accessible to Egyptian scholars and it forms part of 
a work in course of publication. Mariette, Monuments 
divers, etc., etc. Paris 1872. 

In 1869 I obtained a copy of a work, in which 
M. Mariette had printed this and several other docu- 
ments of high importance under the title of Foiiilles 
dAbydos fo. 1869. That work was withdrawn before 
publication, but the copy which I had previously 
received is now in my possession, and it has enabled 
me to complete the translation which I now submit 
to the public. 

It has been examined by two eminent Egypto- 
logists, Mr. C. W. Goodwin, and Dr. S. Birch, who 
have collated it with great care and permit me to 
say that it gives a correct view of the contents of the 
inscription. 

The inscription is surmounted by a picture in which 
the king Pianthi Mer-Amon is represented standing 
before Amcn-Ra Lord of the throne of the world 
seated on his throne behind which is the goddess Mut 
standing. The Prince Nimrod holding a sistrum in 
one hand and his horse by the bridle advances to the 
monarch. He is preceded by his wife ; there are 
three other princes prostrate kissing the ground. 
They are Osorkko, Wuapat, and Pefaabast. Behind 
the throne of Amen five others, Sheshank, Tad-amon- 
anchef, . . . teta, Patenf, and Pa-mu are represented 
in the same attitude. 



8i 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. 



In the twenty-first year, in the month Thoth,' in the 
reign of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Pianchi 
Mer-amon, the ever-Hving, a proclamation of His Ma- 
jesty. " Hear what I have done beyond my ancestors ! 

I am the King, the divine form, the hving image of 
TuM, proceeding from his body, a sword,' as King before 
whom the Chieftains tremble, the illustrious offspring of 
his mother, he became a King from his birth,' a good 
Deity, loved by the gods, son of Ra, vigorous in action,* 
Mer-amon Pianchi." 

A messenger came to His Majesty saying : 

" The Commander in the AVest, the great Chieftain in 
Pe-neter,' Tafnecht, in the nome — and Athribites, 
in Hap,' in An,' in Penub,' and in Memphis, he hath 
taken possession of the West in its entire extent from 



^ The year dates, as usual in Egyptian and Assyrian inscriptions, from 
the accession of the king-. 

° A sword, sc. instrument of divine wrath; cf. Ps. xvii. 13. 

3 His birth, Uterally "from the egg"" a common Egyptian idiom. 

* Lit. "doing with his arms" the same phrase occurs h 15. 

' Pe-iieler, or Ma--nete>; "the divine city or divine Mer" is frequently 
named in the monuments ; see Brugsch, "G. I.," p. 2S9, who identifies it 
with MeVou077s, according to Stephanus Byz. kwju^ Trpbs rip Kav^^w. It was a 
considerable place under the Pharaohs. A city of this name is found in 
the 18th Nome, i.e. the Bubastite, see Duemichen Rec. iii. PL Ixii. The ex- 
pressions indicate the extent of Tafnecht's government in Lower Egypt, 
from Sais to Bubastis, and southwards to Memphis. 

« Hap — the Egyptian name of the Nile — here denotes a city, the southern 
Hap, the uu of the 4th Nome, see Duemichen Rec. iii. 62. G. 

' An, a town in the Nome " Libya," the 3rd, to the extreme west : it was 
probably so named from a spring py " ain." 

8 Pe-nuh, i.e. " City of Gold," xpvaojioXK, now called by the Arabs Bad- 
nub, not far from Sais. 

7 



82 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Pehuu to Ti-tata,' sailing up the stream, with multitudes of 
warriors from the whole land following him, Chiefs and 
Governors of cities like hounds at his feet ; no fortress 
is closed to him. He has occupied the nomes of the 

4 south, Mertum, Pe-ra-sechem-cheper, Ha-sebek,' Pe- 
matet' (Oxyrynchus), Tokaneshu. Every city of the 
West has opened its gates for fear of him. He returned 
then to the nomes of the East, they opened to him 
likewise; Ha-bennu, Taiutit, Sutenha, Pe-neb-apuka,' 
from .... were subdued as far as Sutensenen ; > he 

5 has made them dependent on his orders : he allows 
none to go out, or to enter in, carrying on war con- 
tinually ; he has cut them off on all sides, every Chief in 
his fort ; allowing them all to remain within their own 

6 districts, as Chieftains or Governors. Behold (thus) in 
pride of heart he indulges ambitious projects."' 

Then the Chiefs, the Governors, and the Commanders 
of the troops, which remained {faithful) in their cities 
sent messages to His Majesty without cessation, saying: 
" Art thou then silent and forgetful (even) of the southern 
land, and the nomes of central Egypt ? Tafnecht takes 
all before him, he meets none who can withstand his 

7 arm. Nimrod, Prince of Ha-ment, has overthrown his 



^ Mr. Goodwin supplies this note: "Pehuu was the name of the ^e/iu 
(frontier town) of the 20th Nome (sciuth) i.e. Heracleopolites. Ti-tata was 
the name of the last fortress towards the North at which Pianchi arrived 
before reaching Memphis, see line S3. It may have been considered as 
the boundary between the North and South lands." 

" Ha-Sebek, i.e. Crocodilopolis, where Sebek the Divine Crocodile was 
worshipped; site uncertain ; B. " G. /." p. 2S3. 

^ The three cities Ha-bennu, Taiuti, and Ha-suten, were on the east 
bank, opposite to Oxyrynchus. 

** Paiieb-apu-kat " house of the lord of chieftains," " the bull," was a city 
in the 22nd nome. 

* Sutensenen is now Identified by Fgyptologers with Heraclcopolls. 

^ The construction Is very doubtful ; Birch sugrgrests "in pride teaching 
his heart to be exalted," or, as the Hebrew idiom has it, " enlarged." 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. 83 

forts, the walled city of Neferus : he has himself destroyed 
his own city, in fear that it should be taken from him, 
and that he should be shut up in another city. Remark 
that (even he) is gone to be his follower : he hath re- 

8 nounced allegiance to His Majesty : he stands with him 
as one of . . . He (Tafnecht) has granted to him the 
nome of (Aphroditopolis)' as a reward, that he might give 
his heart to everything he (Tafnecht) might find for him 
to do." 

So His Majesty sent word to the Princes and Generals 
who were over the realm of Egypt, the Captain' Poarma, 
and the Captain Lamersekeni, and all the Captains of 
His Majesty who were over Egypt: "Go forth, destroying, 

9 prepare war, go round (the whole land) capturing its 
men, its cattle, its ships on the river, not permitting the 
labouring men to go out to the fields, nor permitting the 
ploughers to plough, blockading all that belongs to the 
nome of Un,' warring against it continually." 

Behold they acted accordingly. 

Behold His Majesty sent (fresh) troops to Egypt, giving 

10 them great reinforcements. (....)*" night : let there be 
no delay in arming your troops, when you see that he has 
marshalled his army for an expedition. If, saith he, the 
infantry and cavalry are gone away to another city, why 
sit ye (idle) until his soldiers come, (and so) fight (just) 

1 1 when he tells you ? If he ■ should go with his forces to 
another city, well, let them be driven back, the Chiefs, 
those whom he has brought to support him, Tehennu 

' To the north of Heracleopolis, the 19th Nome of Upper Egypt; see 
Brugsch, Geogr. I. taf. xxvii. 

' The orderer, or Marshal. 

' Un, or Hermopolis was the metropolis of the Hevmopolite Nome. 

* A lacuna of about four letters. 



84 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

troops on whom he rehes." Grant they are marshalled 

for war, as by a hero, say, we are not to be driven back. " 

He (PiANCHi) called out as he reviewed his troops, 

12 "Harness the mighty war-horse, the best of the stud; 
ah, let there be destruction in battle. Thou knowest 
what Amon the great god hath commanded us : when 
you enter the city of Thebes, (on the bank) over against 
Apet,' enter with lustrations, purify yourselves in the 
river: array yourselves in your best garments ; draw out' 

13 your bows, prepare your arrows in front of the Chief as 
a conquering Lord ; there is no victory over men with- 
out his knowing it. He hath done glorious deeds with 
his mighty arm ; and many shall turn their backs on a 
few, — and one shall rout a thousand. Sprinkle your- 

14 selves with the (holy) water of his altars : prostrate 
yourselves before his face : say to him, ' Grant us the 
path of war under the shadow of thy scimitar, let the 
youths whom thou hast appointed overthrow with their 
blows myriads.' " 

Behold they all threw themselves prostrate before His 
Majesty. " Doth not thy name give to us victory ? Doth 
not thy command sustain thy soldiers ? Thy food is in 

1 5 our bellies in every expedition : thy beer quencheth our 
thirst; will not thy might give us the victory? Terrible 
is the mention of thy name. The troops (of the enemy) 
shall not hear their Captains, the men of the mercenaries 
shall be as women, as though thou wert thyself present 
Thou art the mighty King, achieving (victory) by thine 
arms. Master of the arts of war !" 

' On tbe Tehennu, foreign legionaries, see M. Chabas, Etudes sur 
CAntiquitc historique p. 181. They were the Libyans. 

' Apet near Luxor, was the name of a principal quarter of Thebes, from 
which some derive the name Theb^ 

' I understand this clause to mean that the troops should present their 
arms before the God at Thebes, thus consecrating them for the war. 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. 85 

16 Then they set forth saihng down the river, and ap- 
proached Thebes : they did according to all which the 
King had commanded. They then went on sailing down 
to Atur :' they found many ships advancing up the 

17 stream, with soldiers, mariners, Captains and the might 
of the north of Egypt, with every kind of instruments 
of war, to war against the soldiers of His Majesty. 

So a great defeat was made of them ; the number of 
soldiers and vessels captured was beyond calculation ; 
they were brought as prisoners to His Majesty's residence. 

They then went on sailing down the river to Suten- 
senen," to prepare for fighting, (and) to send information 
to the Chiefs and Princes of the north. 

18 Lo ! the Prince Nimrod, with the Prince Wuapat, and 
the Commander of the mercenaries. Sheshonk of Pe- 
osiris-neb-tattu : with the great Chief of the mercenaries 
Tat-amenaufanch, of Pe-ba-neb-tattu,' with his son 
Semes, who was a Chief of the troops at Pe-thoth-Ap- 
rehuhu, the soldiers of the Prince Bek-en-nefi," with his 

19 son and heir Chief of mercenaries, Nasna-sechemi of the 
nome of Kahebs ;* every Chief of plume-bearing rank 
who was in the north of Egypt : with the Prince 
OsoRKON who was in Pe-Bast,* and the frontier city of 
Ra-nefer;' every Chief, every Governor on the West and 
the East, and the central districts, all with one accord 
were followers of the great Chieftain of the West, the 

' The mer of the eighth Nome. 
' Heracleopolis. 

' Pe-ba-neb-tatlu — lit. " Temple of the Ram Lord of Tattu," i.e. Mendes. 
Pe-Osiris (Gr. Bovo-tpis) was the sacred name. This was the chief city in 
the ninth Nome. 

•* Bak-en-ne/i, "Servant of breath," resembles Bak-en-ranf, i.e. Boc- 
choris. 

s The eleventh Nome. ' Bubastis. 

' Ra-nefer, Ra the Good. 



86 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Prince of the cities of tlie North, the Prophet of Neit 
Lady of Sais, the High Priest of Ptah, Tafnecht. 

20 They then went forth against them : so they made a 
great overthrow of them, greater than any previous one, 
capturing their vessels at Atur. The remainder of the 
enemies' troops fled and sailed down (and landed) west- 
ward over against Pe-Pak." 

21 On the dawn of the second day the soldiers of His 
Majesty sailed on after them; then as warriors rushing 
on archers,' lo they slew multitudes of their soldiers, 
horses innumerable were smitten. The remainder fled 
on foot northward in utter defeat, ^vretched above all 
things. The count of the slaughter made of them was 
so many men (a blank space which contained of course 
the number of the slain). 

2 2 King NiMROD^ was sailing up the river southwards, 
when it was said to him, Sesennu * is harassed by the 
enemy. The troops of His Sacred Majesty had captured 
his people and his cattle. 

Then he entered into the port of Un.' The troops 
of His Majesty were on the Nile, over against the shores 

23 (of the Hermopolitan district). So when they heard of 
it they blockaded Hermopolis on all quarters. No one 
was permitted to go out or to come in. 

Then they sent to inform His Majesty the King Mer- 
Amon Pianchi, Life-giver, concerning all the overthrow 
they had inflicted with all the forces of the King. 

' Pak, the word means " byssus," or flax. 

* This seems to imply that Pianchi's troops were heavy-armed infantry 
(on-Xrroi). whereas the foreign legionaries were chiefly archers. 

3 Nimrod, a Prince of the race of the Sesonchs and Osorkons, held 
Hermopolis as a sovereign ; he is called Suten. 

' No city is named more frequently in inscriptions : the 15th Nome was 
called Un, the city Sesennu, or Pe-sennu, i.e. the eighth. Hermopolis. 

* Hermopolis. 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. 87 

24 Behold His Majesty was furious at that account Hke a 
leopard. " What," said he, "shall it be allowed to them 
that any remnant shall be left of the troops of the 
North ? What, shall any one of them be allowed to go 
forth to give an account of his outgoing ? Shall they 
not be given up to slaughter and utter destruction ? I 
swear — so may Ra love me, so may my father Amon 

25 be gracious to me, — I will sail down the Nile myself: 
I will destroy the forts which he has built : I will force 
him to retreat by fighting, even an eternal rout. If 
after the performing the ceremony of the festival of the 
beginning of the year I make oblation to my father Amon 
in his excellent panegyry, when he makes his excellent 
manifestation at that festival, and I go forth in peace 
to see Amon in his excellent panegyry of the festival of 
Apet, and I glorify him in his image in the south of Apet, 

26 in his excellent panegyry of the panegyry of Apet, on the 
night at the panegyry of Menta, in the city of Thebes, the 
festival which he appointed for Ra in the first day, and 
I conduct him in procession to his temple resting on his 
throne, on the day that the god is brought in on the 
second day of the month Athor — then will I make all 
the land of Egypt taste my finger ; " 

27 Behold all the troops which were dispersed over Egypt 
heard that the vnrath of His Majesty was kindled against 
them. 

Behold they attacked (Aphroditopolis,) and Pe-ma-tet. 
They took it like a storm of rain. 

Then they sent an account of this to His Majesty, but 
his heart was not appeased by it. 

28 Then they attacked the stronghold Tatehn, called 
Oernechtu ; they found it full of soldiers, of all mighty 
men of the land of the North ; behold a battering machine 
was made and brought against it : it battered down its 



88 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

wall. A great slaughter was made of them, an unknown 
amount, with a son' of the great Chief of the mercenaries 
Tafnecht. 

Behold they sent an account of this to His Majesty, his 
heart was not appeased by it 

29 Behold they attacked Ha-bennu, and forced an en- 
trance for the soldiers of His Majesty : they sent word to 
His Majesty, but his heart was not appeased by it 

So on the 9th day of the month Thoth His Majesty set 
forth and sailed down to Thebes, where he concluded 
the festival of Amon with a panegyry at Apet 

30 Then he advanced down the stream to the district of 
Hermopolis. 

His Majesty came forth from the state cabin of his 
ship. The steeds were harnessed : he was raised high 
on his war-car : the terror of His Majesty reached the 
Asiatics,' every heart was filled with his terror : Lo His 
Majesty went forth giving free course to his indignation 
against his troops : he raged against them as a leopard. 

31 " AVhat, have they made a stand ? You have fought 
them without spirit ! My message went out a year ago. 
Will you not complete the pursuit, spreading fear of me 
over the north of Egypt ? Inflict upon them a defeat 
a terrible overthrow by smiting.'' 

32 (Then) he took up for himself quarters on the south- 
west of Un,' and blockaded it without cessation, making 
palisades to invest (lit clothe) the walls, raising works 
to mount the archers, that they might shoot arrows and 
balistae to hurl stones at it : (drus) slaying men among 
them continually. 

' It is not clear whether the son of Tafnecht was captured or slain. If 
captured only Bocchoris in person may be intended. 

" I.e. at once extended even beyond the frontier of Eg"ypt, alluding 
possibly to the Assyrians connected with Nimrod's family. 

* Hermopolis. 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. 89 

(And so) it took place in three days, and in Un' there 
was a stench ; their nostrils were without pleasant smells. 

33 Lo Un' now threw itself down prostrate in supphcation 
before the face of the sovereign. Their heralds came 
forth in procession bearing all splendid gifts, gold, all 
precious stones, and embroidered vestments. Upon 
(the King's) head was the Urseus impressing them with 
terror of him. 

Not many days passed after this act of homage to the 
Lord of all Egypt," (when) behold he (Nimrod) sent out 

34 his wife, a Queen by marriage and birth, Nestennest, to 
do homage to the King's Wives, and Concubines, and 
Daughters and Sisters, to prostrate herself in the harem 
before the King's Wives, saying, " I am come, O Queens 
and Princesses, do you reconcile the divine King,^ Lord 
of the palace, whose spirit ■* is mighty and whose justice is 
great. Grant — " 

35 [The next tablet from line 35 to 51 is entirely effaced,' 
from 51 to 56 partially mutilated.] 

S3 (The Chiefs) of the South are humbled, those of the 
North (cry out) " Grant to us to be under thy shadow." 
With his oblations. 

55 Not a Chief see. 

Thy provinces of the North and South are as children. 
Behold he threw himself prostrate before the King, — 
(saying) 

56 "HoRUS, Lord of the Palace, by thy spirit it has been 
done to me. I am one of the King's slaves, bound to 

' Hermopolis, 

° Lit. to his double crown, the Peshent denoting- the sovereign acknow- 
ledged as the legitimate head of all Egypt. 

2 The Divine King, lit. " Horus Lord of the Palace." The Pharaoh is 
frequently styled Horus in inscriptions of the ancient empire. 

* Spirit, the personality of Kings, " full of the Spirits," is thus designated. 

' The effaced lines contained of course an account of Nimrod's acts of 
submission and homage. 



9© RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

make offerings for the treasury ; the tributes which I now 

57 make to thee in addition to those (already presented)." 
He offered silver, gold, lapis lazuli, turquoise and crystal,' 
every kind of precious stone in abundance. Lo the 
treasury was filled by their offerings. 

58 He led his horse, (bearing) in his right hand a vase, 
in his left a sistrum of gold and lapis lazuli. 

59 Then behold (Pianchi) made a solemn procession from 
his palace, and went forth to the temple of Thoth, Lord 
of Sesennu ; he sacrificed oxen, cows, geese, to Father 
Thoth, Lord of Sesennu, and to the eight gods' in their 
temples. 

60 Then were the soldiers of Un' in rejoicing and shout- 
ing ; they said, " O the goodness of HoRus, resting 
peacefully in his city. Son of the Sun, 

61 Pianchi ; thou makest for us a festival as thou rulest 
over Un."* 

62 Then the King went forth to the house of the Prince 
NiMROD ; he went to every apartment of the royal 
palace, his treasuries, his storehouses, that he might have 
peace-offerings brought to him. 

6;^ Then came the Queens and Princesses to adore the 
King after the manner of women,' but His Majesty did 
not turn his countenance upon them. 

64 The King (then) went forth to visit the stud of brood- 
mares, and the stables of the young steeds, he saw that 

' Mafek and tahcti ; Chabas shows good reason for the identification of 
the former with some kinds of turquoise, or malachite, and of the latter 
with crystal or "quartz hyaiin." 

' Thoth with eigfht Deities made up a Paout, or group of nine. Other 
Deities mentioned in connexion with Hermopolis are Turn, Sa, or As, and 
Nciiemawait, a form of Isis, identified by Plutarch with AtKaiocTurij. 

^ Southern Hermopolis. 

* The Nome of Hermopolis. 

' Lit. with "things of women;" which I take to mean after the wont of 
women. 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. 9 1 

they had famished them. Then said he, " By my Hfe, 

65 so may Ra love me, I loathe the youth, wretched crea- 
tures' are they to my heart, who have starved my steeds 
(this is) more than any abomination thou (Nimrod) hast 
done altogether." 

66 My remonstrance reached every heart, " terror is over 
all thy people !"° "What ! didst thou not know that the 

67 shadow of the Deity was over me ? Did he ever fail me? 
Had any other done this to me whom I knew not I should 

68 not have been so indignant with him about it I am 

69 bom of the loins, created from the egg, of the Deity, 
the divine procreation is in me. All hail to him, I have 
not acted without his knowing : he ordained that I should 
act." 

Behold he appointed his offerings for the treasury and 

70 granaries and as oblations to Amon-in-Apet. 

Then came the Prince of Sutensenen,' Pefaabast, 

71 with tributes to Pharaoh, gold, silver, and all precious 
stones, with steeds the choicest of his stud. He 
threw himself prostrate before His Majesty, and said, 

72 " Hail to thee HoRUS, Royal Bull, smiting cows ! Hades 

73 has seized me. I am immersed in darkness ! Give me 
light over it I have not found a friend in the evil time 
standing by me in the day of battle, save thee only, O 

74 King. Do thou lift the darkness from me. I am thy 
slave together with my subjects in Sutensenen, attached 

75 to thy royal apartments ; thou glorious image of Hor- 
MACHis, ruling over the indestructible constellations ! 

' " In evil plight," or perhaps "as evil livers." The construction, how- 
ever, is obscure. 

' This would seem to express the feelings of those who heard Pianchi's 
remonstrance. 

^ Heracleopolls, now Ahnes, about 90 miles to the north of Hermopolis. 
The two princes Nimrod and Pefaabast belonged to the same family, and 
their dominions were probably contiguous. 



92 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

76 Wliile he exists thou existest, as he is indestructible thou 

77 art indestructible, O King of all Egypt, Pianchi, living 
for evermore." 

Then His Majesty sailed down to Aptmer and Mar- 
hunt He found the city of the temple of Ra-sechem- 
CHEPER with its walls repaired and its fortress closed, full 

78 of the best soldiers of the North. 

So His Majesty sent an embassy to them, saying, 
" Living ye are dead men, (unless you surrender) you 
will be captured or slain. If the time pass by, and 
there be no opening, ye shall be numbered among those 
slain under the blows of the King when he forces the 
gates. You live (only) to be collected for execution on 

79 this day, owing to your loving death and hating life, (a 
punishment which will be inflicted) in the face of the 
whole country.'' 

So they sent an embassy to His Majesty, saying, "Lo 
the Divine shadow is over thy head, O son of Nut ! He 
gives you his arms ! The utterance of thy heart is (ful- 
filled) forthwith as that which proceeds from the mouth 
of the Deity. For he hath procreated thee a Deity to 
see us obedient on our beholding thy arms. Behold 
thy city, its fortresses (taken), none enter, none go out : 
His Majesty doth what he will." 

80 So they came forth with the son' of the chief Com- 
mander of the mercenaries Tafnecht. 

Then the troops of His Majesty entered into it (the 
city). He did not slay a single man of all whom he 

81 found. (He went up) together with his officers to the 
citadel, and ordered an exact account (to be taken) of 
its magazines and its granaries, for oblations to his 
father Amon-Ra, Lord of the thrones of Egypt. 

Then His Majesty went on sailing down the Nile. He 

' This appears to be another son of the chieftain j see line 28. 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. 93 

found Mertum, Pe-Sokari, the Lord of light, closed. He 
did not approach it so as to allow any fighting within it ; 

82 they were however alarmed with great terror ; and they 
closed their gate. 

Then His Majesty sent to them, saying, " Two ways are 
before you ; choose as you will ; open, and live ; shut 
up, and die ! His Majesty does not pass by any closed 
fort" Lo they opened forthwith. 

83 Then His Majesty entered into his city, that he might 
offer to Menhi who dwells in light. He took account 
of the treasury and granaries for oblations to Amon in 
Apet 

(Then His Majesty sailed down to Ti-tata. He found 
the gate closed and the walls full of the strongest soldiery 
of the North. Behold they opened their citadels, 

84 throwing themselves prostrate (before) His Majesty, 
saying, " Thy Father hath sent thee : thou art his heir, 
who art Lord over both realms : thou art the ally of the 
gods ; thou art Lord over the land." 

Then the King went forth to make great offerings to 
the gods of this city, of bulls, cows, geese, and all things 
good and pure. He then took account of the treasury 
and the granaries for oblations. (After this he dispatched 
an embassy) to Heliopolis. 

85 Then he sent to them, saying : "Let there be no closing 
(and) there shall be no fighting within the city of Shu. 
The first time that I enter he enters ; going forth, (as) 
he goeth forth, my outgoings are not to be arrested. 
When I have made oblations to Ptah, god of the gods 
who are in Memphis : and have made offerings to Socari 
in the sanctuary : and have seen his southern temple : 

86 then I will sail down in peace to Memphis.' No Aveeping 
of children shall be seen. Not a single person shall be 

' The narrative here is obscured by the mutilation of the inscription. 



94 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

slain in it; save only the great rebels against the god:' 
the vile and worthless only shall be executed." 

They however closed their fort, and sent their soldiers 
to escape from the troops of His Majesty, (disguised) as 
workmen, builders, mariners, to the port of Memphis. 

87 Lo the Lord of Sais (Tafnecht) came to Memphis at 
nightfall with an armament of his soldiers, and mariners, 
all the best of his troops, 8000 men, with their complete 
equipment. 

88 Thus Memphis was full of soldiers, all the chief of the 
North, with barley, wheat, all corn of granaries in abund- 
ance," every kind of implement (of war. They proceeded 
to fortify Memphis) with a great bulwark made by skilful 
artizans, and a moat round the Eastern quarter. No 
point of attack was found therein. The stalls were full 
of milch-cows : the treasury was supplied with all good 
things, silver, gold, iron, copper, vestments, frankincense, 
honey. 

I went,' I gave gifts to the Chieftains of the North : 

they opened their districts ; I was as a 

the day at my coming. 

89 He (Tafnecht) took his seat on horseback ; he did not 
call for his chariot. 

Then he sailed down in fear of His Majesty on the 
dawn of the next morning. 

Then Pianchi drew near to Memphis ; he came in his 
barge to the north side of the city ; he found water 
enough to let him come close to the walls : his vessels 
put in at Memphis. 

' Pianchi identifies himself with HoRUS, the tutelary Deity of the Pharaoh, 
who is his representative. 

" " In abundance." 

' " I went," etc. This appears to be the address of Tafnecht, but it 
comes in very abruptly. The lost paragraph must have described the 
approach of the king and the effect upon Tafnecht. 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. 95 

90 Behold His Majesty saw Memphis strengthening the 
lofty walls with new works ; bulwarks fitted up with 
great strength. There was no way found to assault it. 

Every man then among the soldiers of the King spoke 
out proposing all devices of war : every man was saying, 
" Let us now blockade' the city ; make war, multiply de- 
vices ; erect a scaffolding against it ; let us raise earth- 
works to the level of its walls : let us fasten wood-works ; 

91 let us set up masts, and use sailyards for ladders against 
it. We will distribute to every quarter of the city the 
ladders in this way as scaling ladders. Let us extend 
tiiem to fill it (the moat) and to raise the soil to a level 

92 with its walls ; we will find a way for our feet." 

Then His Majesty raged against the city as a leopard ; 
he said, "As I live, so may Ra love me, so may father 
Amon be gracious to me : I invented these devices 
against it by the command of Amon ! 

That which my people have said ..." 

93 They opened to him a way to which Amon did not let 
their attention be directed ;' they knew it not, what he 
commanded he accomplished ; giving his whole energy 
that his terror might be seen. " I shall take the city 
like a storm of rain." So we ordained. 

94 Then behold he gave out orders that his vessels and his 
soldiers should attack the port of Memphis. They 
brought him every boat, vessel, yacht and barge,' as 
many as there were ; and they cast anchor in the haven 
of Memphis, beginning to put in near its houses : 

^ The construction is not clear, but the meaning" seems to be that when 
the king's soldiers saw these preparations they clamoured for an immediate 
attack. 

° The connection of these sentences is obscured by the lacuna. Pianchi 
seems to refer to former victories obtained by stratagems inspired by 
Amon. 

' Or " the front row (of the vessels) putting in close to the houses of the 
port:" see line 95. 



96 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

95 The people of this part of the city were distressed, and 
wept at all these assaults of the King." 

His Majesty then went on board the royal ship himself, 
with all the vessels of the fleet : he then commanded 
his troops; "Advance against the city; surround the 
wall ; enter the houses by the river. If any of you enter 
the wall no one will stand before him ; no one will resist 

96 my officers. Vile is the citizen ; we have blockaded 
the southern quarter ; we have moored our ships on the 
north ; we have sat down in the central point of the two 
lands." 

Behold Memphis was captured as by a storm of rain : 
multitudes were slaughtered in it, or were brought as 
captives to the head-quarters of His Majesty, together 
with 

Then on the second day His Majesty appointed men to 

97 go and protect the temples of the Deity ; to stretch forth 
the arm to protect the sanctuary, of the gods, to offer 
libations to the chief Deities of Ptah-ha-ka, and to purify 
Memphis with natron and frankincense ; restoring the 
Priests to their places. 

His Sacred Majesty then went forth to the temple of 
the god, and performed lustrations in the chamber of 
purification,' accomplishing all rites that are done by the 

98 Sovereign. He entered the temple making great sacrifices 
to father Ptah of the Southern A\'all, with bulls, cows, 
geese, and all good things. 

Then the King went to his Palace. Behold, the districts 
heard of this; all that pertain to the domains of Memphis, 
Heriptemi, Peninafuaa, the fort Nebiu, the district of 

■ The meaning is doubtful. 

' The purification of the temples after the massacre was needed, but was 
especially characteristic of the dynasty to which Pianchi belonged. The 
same act is recorded of Tirhakah. 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. 97 

99 Bii, all opened their forts, and fled on foot, unknown 
was the place they fled to. 

Then came Wuapat, with the Captains and mercenaries 
Merkaneshu, and the Prince Petisis, with all the 

100 Leaders of the North of Egypt with their tributes, to 
behold His Majesty's excellency.' 

PiANCHi then inspected the treasures and granaries of 
Memphis, and made offerings to Amon, Ptah, and the 
circle of gods of Ptah-ha-ka. 

On the next morning His Majesty went to the East 
loi and offered libations to Tum in Kher ; " and to the cycle 
of gods in the temple of the cycle of gods in which is 
the shrine of the gods abiding therein ; with bullocks 
cows, and geese ; (that) they might grant life, health 
and might to the Sovereign of all Egypt, Pianchi, the 
Immortal. 

Then His Majesty went to Un over this hill of Kher, 
on the road of Sap' to Kher. 

Then the King went to the royal head-quarters* on the 

west of the lake of Horus, and offered his oblations. 

102 Then he purified himself in the heart of the cool lake, 

washing his face in the stream of the heavenly waters 

in which Ra laves his face. 

Then he proceeded to the sandy height' in Heliopolis, 
making a great sacrifice on that sandy height of Helio- 
polis before the face of Ra at his rising, with milch- 

' Equivalent to the Hebrew. 

' Kher, a sacred city often named in the Ritual. Its site is here shown 
to be near IVIemphis, on the way to Heliopolis. 

' Sap, an unknown god, tutelar of Oxyrynchites, the iSth Nome. 

* The word Am. indicates a residence with garden or park, a paradisus, 
a word which is referred by Gesenius and other scholars to the Sanskrit, 
in which it could not exist with that meaning. The lake, or port of Horus 
was probably the "fountain of the sun," close to Heliopolis; this graceful 
description implies a peculiar sanctity attachincr to the spot. The ex- 
pression " heart of the lake," corresponds to the Hebrew, Exod. xv. 8. 

' Or sandy-hill ; De Rouge renders it " les sables elev(5s dans Heliopolis." 



98 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

103 COWS, milk, odorous gums,' frankincense, and all precious 
woods, delightful for scent. 

He went in procession to the temple of Ra, the great 
sanctuary with solemn adoration. Then the Chief Priest' 
offered supplications to ward off calamity from the 
King, performing the rite of lustration girded with the 
(sacred) vestments. He then purified him with incense, 
and sprinkling, and brought to him garlands from the 

104 temple of Obelisks.' When the garlands were brought 
to him, he ascended the flight of steps to the great 
shrine to behold Ra in the Temple of Obelisks. 

The King himself stood, the great one alone, he drew 
the bolt, he opened the folding doors, he saw his father 
Ra in the Temple of Obelisks, (and) the bark of Ra, 
and the vessel* of Tum. 

105 Then he closed the doors, and set sealing-clay with 
the King's own signet, and enjoined the priests, (saying) 

" I have set my seal, let no other King whatever enter 
therein."' 

Then he stood while they prostrated themselves be- 
fore His Majesty, saying, 

" All hail for ever, indestructible HoRUS,' lover of 
HeliopoUs ! Thou who comest as one entering into the 

106 temple Tum, ministering to the image of father Tum, 
Chepera great god of Heliopolis." 

' "Jiiti." Chabas observes that this scent, a precious gum from Arabia, 
was so highly esteemed as to be the main object of commerce between 
Egypt and Arabia. 

' The Chcr-heh, probably, as De Rouge explains the word, "chief of 
the Odists," or conductor of the sacred rites. 

' This probably designatesthe great temple of Heliopolis. One of the 
obelisks which then stood before the Porch still exists; it is the most 
beautiful in Egypt, and belongs to the time of Osirtasin of the 12th dynasty. 

■* The sacred boat appropriated to each deity had a distinct name. 

' This was of course directed against the Princes of the line of Bubastis 
and others, over whom Pianchi claimed, and for a time exercised, su- 
premacy. 

^ J.e. "divine King," visible representative of Horus. 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. 99 

Then came the King Osorkon' to behold the King's 
excellency. 

On the next morning the King went forth to the haven, 
and on board his vessels, and proceeded to the haven 
of Kakem. ' 

107 There head-quarters were pitched for the King to the 
south of Kaheni, on the east of Kakem. 

Then came the Princes and Chieftains of the North, 
all the Commanders, all fan-bearers, all Governors and 
all royal kinsmen from the West, from the East, and from 
the central districts, to behold the King's excellency. 

108 Then too came the Prince Petisis to prostrate himself 
before His Majesty, and said, 

" Come to Kakem, behold Chent-Chatti ! ' worship 
Chuit ! Offer sacrifices to Horus in his temple with 
bullocks, cows, geese ! enter into my palace ; open to thee 
is my treasury, taking possession of the heritage of my 
father. I offer thee gold to thy heart's content,* and crys- 

109 tal the image of thy own person,' mighty steeds also the 
choice of the stud, and the chief things of my storehouse." 

So the King went forth to the temple of Horus Ghent 
Chatti, to offer bullocks, cows, geese to his father 
Horus Ghent Chatti, Lord of Kem-Oer. 

The King then proceeded to the palace of the Prince 

Petisis, who made offerings to him of silver, gold, lapis 

no lazuli, turquoise, a vast heap of all valuables, royal 

vestments in all abundance, couches covered with 

byssus, odorous gums, unguent in vases, steeds both 

' Osorkon of Bubastis, see line 114, is entitled King:, and is not here 
said to render homag-e. He was evidently recognized a legitimate, though 
not independent sovereign. 

' The "black bull," or Bull of Egypt, the loth Nome in Lower Egypt. 

^ A designation of Horus, dweller in Chatti, a place not known. 

■* The expression is very forcible, "to the limits of thy heart," i.e. to thy 
heart's content, far as thy wishes can extend. 

5 This may mean the image of Horus, see the next line and line 1S5. 



100 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Stallions and brood mares, all the best of his stud. Then 

111 (Petisis) cleared himself by an oath in the presence of 
the great Princes of the North. " Any one here who 
has concealed his steeds or hidden his valuables, well ! 
Let him die, let his father die ! I call on those of you 
who govern my household here, do ye not know every 
thing that I possess ? Well ! Say ye that I have hid 
aught from His Majesty of all the goods of my father's 

112 house, gold, silver, with precious stones, with goblets,' 
with bracelets to adorn the arms, gold to adorn the 
neck, and jewelled collars ; they were fitted with 
precious stones, an amulet for every limb, diadems for 
the head, earrings . for the ears, every decoration of a 
king, every vessel of royal lustration, in gold, and jewels, 

113 all these in abundance. I have consecrated before 
(thee) royal stuffs, vestments by thousands, with every 
best possession in my palace ; I know thou wilt be satis- 
fied therewith. Go to the storehouses, choose what thou 
likest, of all the steeds whichever thou mayest prefer.'' 

Behold His Majesty did thus. 

Then said the chief Princes to His Majesty ; " We will 

114 give orders to our cities ; we will open our treasuries; 
we will choose what may be pleasing to thy heart ; we 
will bring to thee all the best things in our storehouses, 
the best of our steeds." 

Behold, His Majesty did thus. 
A list of their names. 

The King Osorkko in Bubastis, and the dis- 
trict of Ranofer, the King Wuapat in Tent-remu, and 

115 Taan; the Chief Tad-amon-anchef in Pe-ba-neb-tattu," 
and the pyramid-temple of Ra ; Semsem Commander 

' /ippt, a cup of some precious metal, possibly steel, which was known 
and used, but very rare. 

" Lit. the Ram (i.e. Osiris) Lord of Tattu, or Dadd, probably Mendes. 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. lOI 

of the troops in Pi-thoth-ap-rehuhu, Anchhor, the Chief 
Merka-nesh in Neter-teb, in Pe-hebi, and Sam-hut ; the 
Commander of the mercenaries Pa-tenf, in Pa-sept-hor,' 
ii6 and in the temple-pyramid of Memphis ; the chief Com- 
mander of the mercenaries Pa-mu° in Pe-osiris-neb-tattu ; 
the chief Commander of the troops Mersenaki in the 
nome of Kahesbu ; the Commander of mercenaries of 
Necht-hor-na-shentou in Pe-kalel ; the Commander of 
« mercenaries Pen-taur, the Commander of mercenaries 
Pent-bechen, Prophet of Horus, Lord of Sechem; 

117 Pat-Hor-sam-tatui;' the Chief Hur-easa in Pe-Sechet, 
Lady of Sais, and Pe-Sechet Lady of Hassui; the 
Chief Zadkhiau* in Chent-nofer; the Chief Pa-bas in 
Cher, and Pehap,' bringing their offerings, all good things. 

[Four lines 118 to 123 are more or less defaced : they contained 
an enumeration of the offerings and addresses of the Chief- 
tains, and apparently an account of the revolt of the sailors 
belonging to Petisis. The following groups are legible ; 

118 gold, silver, turquoise, rolls of byssus, fragrant gums. 

119 in vases throughout of valuable horses. . .this 

120 It was come and told His Majesty the troops were 
the enceinte 

122 ...he set fire to the treasury and boats in the river). 

123 — Then the King sent his troops to see what had been 
done by the sailors of the Prince Petisis ; and they re- 

125 turned announcing to His Majesty, saying, We have 
slain all the men we found there. 

' De Roug-e, " Pa-supti." The fig-ure is explained by Brug-sch, Geogr. I. 
p. 32. The deity was represented as a hawk, with two upright feathers on 
its head, and by a pyramid. The pyramid is pronounced Sopt, or Sopd, 
and the god is called Supt in an inscription on a colossal hawk at Berlin 
of the time of Amenophis HI. He is identified with Horus of the East. 

^ Pa~mu i.e. *' the lion." 

^ J.e. " devoted to Horus the uniter of both lands." 

* A Semitic name, i.e. Zedekiah. 

5 I.e. Nilopolis, perhaps the city called Hap. 



102 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

126 Then the King gave it' as a recompense to Prince 
Petisis. 

And then, behold, on hearing this the Commander 

127 of the mercenaries Tafnecht directed ambassadors to 
go to the royal head-quarters as suppliants, saying, 

" Hail to thee !' I could not look on thy face in those 

128 days of shame; I could not stand against thy fire ; I am 
overcome by thy terror. Lo ! thou art the divine Nueti 

129 (Sutech), the occupant of the South, and Mentu, tke 
mighty Bull accomplishing every thing to which thou 
directest thy countenance. Thou hast not found thy 

130 servant there, for I have reached the islands of the 
Mediterranean. I am in terror at thy presence, at the 

131 word of fire uttered overpoweringly against me. Will 
not tlie heart of Thy Majesty be appeased by these 

132 things which thou hast done to me ? I indeed am under 
a righteous infliction ; but let me not be smitten 
beyond the measure of the crime P As though mea- 
suring with a scale, and calculating with weights thou 
multipliest* to me threefold. Com is brought as 

133 an offering to thee; it is in its season:' do not 
destroy the tree together with its fruit All hail to 
thee ! Thy terror is in my body ; thy fright is in 

134 my teeth ! I sit not in the house of beer; the harp is 
not brought to me ; lo, I eat the bread of hunger and 

135 drink in thirst. For since the day tliou heardest my 
name terror is in my bones, my head is untrimmed, 

* The captured hold of the mariners. 

' Hotep-rek, cf. Abrek in Genesis, and essay in Vol. I of the Commentary 
on the Bible, p. 482. 

^ Birch renders this clause, " I am in real affliction." The general sense 
is tolerably clear, but the construction is very difficult. 

** Sc. " my punishments." 

^ The meaninj^ seems tobe : "All the produce of the land belongfs to thee, 
but do not destroy it utterly; let the trees stand," which the Egyptians 
generally destroyed in their campaigns. It is not improbable, however, 
that Tafnecht is alluding to himself and his family. 



INSCRIPTION OF PIANCHI MER-AMON. 1 03 

136 my garments are squalid : that Neith might be recon- 
ciled to me. ' Thou hast caused me a long flight. Thy 

137 countenance is upon me (?) My being is separated 
(from its sin) ; thy servant is cleansed from his pride. 
I beseech thee, take my goods into thy treasury, the 

138 gold and all precious stones. Lo, the steeds, chests 
with all precious things. O grant that a messenger 

139 may come to me as a reconciler : let him remove terror 
from my heart ; let me go to the temple in his presence : 
let me purify myself by an oath." 

140 So his Majesty sent the Chief Odist Poti-amon-nesa- 
TATUi, and the Commander of the troops, Poarma. He 

141 (Tafnecht) presented them with silver, gold, vestments 
and all precious tilings; and then he went to the temple, 

142 and adored the Deity, and purified himself with an oath, 
saying : 

143 "I will not disobey the royal ordinance, I will not 
oppose the words of His Majesty, I will not sin against 
my Chief; thou (O Deity) knowest not any deed of 

144 mine against the words of the King, I will not transgress 
what he ordaineth." 

145 Behold His Majesty was appeased by that 

Then one came to say to His Majesty : The Temple 
of Anubis" has opened its fortress, and Matennu renders 

146 homage : there is not a nome closed to His Majesty 
of all the nomes of the South, the North, the West or 

147 the East ; the domains in the centre of Egypt are pro- 
strate at his terror, and are about to renew their offerings 
at the royal residence, as subjects of the Palace. 

148 On the next morning' came the two Sovereigns of the 

' Tafnecht was hig-h-priest of Neith. The object of the fasting-, etc., was 
to regain the favour of the goddess. I do not understand the next clause. 

' I.e. the city so-called. Pa-Anebu ; the exact site is unknown, but it 
was evidently a fortress not captured before the advance of Pianchi. 

' The four kings were Nimrod and Pefaabast from the South, Osorkon 
and Wuapat from the North. 



I04 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

South and hvo Sovereigns of the North, with their 
diadems, to adore the might of His Majesty, and then 

149 together with the Kings all the Chieftains of the North 
came to behold the -King's excellency. 

150 Their legs (trembled) as the legs of women. They 
did not enter into the Palace because they were un- 
clean on account of their eating fish, a thing forbidden' 

151 for the royal Palace: (but) behold the Prince-royal 
NiMROD was allowed to enter Ihe Palace because he 

152 was clean, he had not eaten fish. They remained 
standing not entering the Palace. 

153 Lo ! then the vessels were laden with silver, gold, 
bronze, vestments, all the precious things of the North, 

154 all precious offerings of Khar,' all rich products of Ta- 
neter.' 

Then His Majesty set sail up the stream : his heart was 
enlarged ! 

155 All were rejoicing: the West and East prepared them- 

156 selves to rejoice before the King. They shouted, they 
rejoiced, they said, "Thou conquering King, Pianchi, 

157 thou conquering King, thou art come 1 Thou hast cap- 
tured the North ! Thou hast turned bulls into women ! 

158 Joyful is the mother who bears a male child begotten 
of thee ! The dwellers in the highlands offer adorations 
to her as the mother of the hero.' Thou art for ever ! 
Thy might is durable O King, lover of Thebes ! " 

' The consumption of fish was forbidden to the priests, a fact often 
noticed in the Ritual. Pianchi and Nimrod were both of a priestly family, 
the latter evidently bore hifrh priestly rank, as is indicated in the 
genealogies. Salted fish was however used commonly, as in the schools 
of the scribes. The prohibition appears to have applied to sea-fish as 
Typhonic. 

' Syria. ' Araby the divine. 

■* Or bull. The mother of Tirhakah calls him " Prince born of the (divine) 
cow." By the Divine Cow the Queen means herself, as wife of Amon. 



105 



EXTRACT 



FROM THE 



TABLET OF NEWER-HOTEP. 



TRANSLATED BY 

PAUL PIERRET. 



* CONTAINING 

The Egyptian accoimt of a scene of investiture with the 
Chain of honour ^ 



TN the year III of His Holiness, King Horus," 
behold, His Holiness appeared like unto the Sun, 
in his palace of the placid-life,^ 

after having there consecrated loaves to his father Ammon, 
as he left the Chamber of gold '^ cries of joy 
and acclamations circulated all over the world •> 

and their clamour reached even to Heaven. 
The Divine Father of Ammon,* Newer-hotep, 
was called to receive recompenses 
coming from the King of millions of years, 
and which consisted of all sorts of things, 
in silver, gold, perfumed garments, bread, beverages, 
meat, cakes, in virtue of this order of my Lord Ammon : 
" Let them give my favours before witnesses to the Kher-heb} 
Repose-of-the-heart-of-Ammon, Newer-hotep " 
who says (replies) : " Numerous are the things ^ 5 

^ Com. Genesis xli, 41,42. This text hasbeen published by J. Diimichen 
Hist. Inscrifi. ii, 40 e, and partly by H. Brugsch, Monum, pi. 37. 

' King- of the XVIIlth dynasty. ' Epithet names of the Royal Palace. 

■* Sacerdotal title. ' Idem. 



I06 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

which the god, who is the King of gods, 

giveth to him who knoweth him, 

he doth recompense him who serveth him 

and he protecteth him who doth follow him, (him) 

of whom the Sun is the body, 

and whom the solar-disk doth for ever accompany." 

Underneath this legend Newer-hotep is represented receiving 
the chain of gold, which is, however, not mentioned in the text. 
This leads me to believe that the representation of the investiture 
of the Chain has not always the precise meaning attributed to it, 
but had oftentimes no other object than to picture to the eye the 
totality of the favours by which exceptional services were re- 
warded. ' 



' The xlii pi. of Diimichen, Hist. hue. (2nd part) also represents an 
investiture of the Chain which is not mentioned in the text which accom- 
panies it. 



107 



TRAVELS OF AN EGYPTIAN, 

IN 

SYRIA, PHENICIA, PALESTINE, ETC. 
IN THE XlVth CENTURY B.C. 

FROM A PAPYRUS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 
BY 

MM. CHABAS AND GOODWIN. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH BY S. M. DRACH. 



'T'HE Travels of an Egyptian has first been trans- 
lated into English by M. C. W. Goodwin, Cambridge 
Essays, 1858, p. 267-269, from an hieratic papyrus in 
the British Museum, published in facsimile by the 
Trustees, Fo. 1842, pi. 35-61. In 1866, M. F. Chabas, 
availing himself of the collaboration of M. Goodwin, 
published a full translation of the same in French, 
Voyage d'un Egyptien en Syrie, en Phenicie, etc., 4to, 
1866, including a copy of the hieratic text with a 
double transcription into hieroglyphic and Coptic 
types, and a perpetual commentary. Objections 



Io8 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

were made by M. H. Brugsch, Revue Critique, Paris, 
1868, Aout ct Septembre. But M. Chabas strongly 
vindicated his views in an additional work, Voyage 
d'lm Egyptien — R(?poiise a la Critique, Chalons, 1868, 
4to., since which the matter seems to be settled 
among Egyptologists. The debate was however un- 
important in regard to geographical information as it 
bore merely on the point to ascertain whether the 
narrative refers to an actual journey really effected 
by the Egyptian officer named a Mohar, or a model 
narrative of a supposed voyage drawn from a previous 
relation of a similar trip extant at the time. 



log 



TRAVELS OF AN EGYPTIAN. 



Section i. 

PAGE LINE 

i8 . 3 Thy letter which is full of lacuna is loaded with 
pretentious expressions : such is the retribution of 
those who wish to understand it, it is a charge 

i8 . 4 which thou hast charged at thy will. "I am a 
scribe, a Mohar," hast thou repeated : let us respect 
thy word and set off. 

18.5 Thou hast put horses to the chariots ; thy horses 
are as swift as jackals : their eyes flash : they are like 
a hurricane bursting ; thou takest 

18.6 the reins, seizest the bow : we contemplate the 
deeds of thy hand. I send thee back the Mohar's 
portrait : and make thee know 

18.7 his actions. Didst thou not then go to the country 
of the Kheta? Hast thou not seen the land of Aup? 
Knowest thou not Khatuma, Ika- 

18 . 8 tai, likewise? how is it? The Tsor of Sesortris, 

the city of Khaleb on its vicinity ? — 

19 . I How goes it with its ford? Hast thou not made 

an expedition to Qodesh and Tubakkhi ? Hast thou 

not gone to the Shasous ? 
19 . 2 with the auxiliary body? Hast thou not trampled 

the road of Pamakar the sky' was dark on the day 

when 
19 . 3 there flourished the cypresses, the oaks and cedars, 

which reached up to heaven : there are many lions, 

wolves and hyeenas 

■ The papyrus is much worn here. The name of the place is perhaps 
" Pamakar of the sky." 



no RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

PAGE LINE 

19.4 which the Shasous track on all sides. Didst thou 
not ascend the mountain of Shaoua ? Hast thou not 
travelled, thy arms 

19.5 placed on the back of thy car separated from its 
harness by the horses drawing it ? 

19.6 Oh ! come to ... . barta. Thou hastenest to get 
there : thou cross- 

19.7 est its ford. Thou seest a Mohar's trials. Thy car 

19 . 8 is placed in thy hand: thy strength fails. Thou 

arrivest at the night : all thy limbs 
19.9 are knocked up : thy bones are broken, thou fallest 
asleep from excess of somnolence : thou wakest up — 

20 . I 'Tis the hour when sad night begins : thou art ab- 

solutely alone. Comes there not a thief to rob the 
20 . 2 thmgs left aside : he enters the stable : the horses 

are agitated : the thief goes back in the night 
20 . 3 carrying away thy clothes. Thy servant awakes in 

the night ; he perceives the thief's actions : he takes 

away the rest, 
20 . 4 he goes among the bad ones ; and joins the tribes 

of the Shasous : and transforms himself to an Asiatic. 
20 . 5 The enemy comes to plunder, he finds only the 

wreck : Thou wakest, dost thou not find them 
20 . 6 in their flight ? They take thy baggage. Thou be- 
comes! an active and quick-eared Mohar? 



Section 2. 

20 . 7 I also describe to thee the holy city, whose name is 
Kapaon (Gabal). How is it ? Of their goddess (we 
will speak) another time. Therein 

20 . 8 hast thou not penetrated ? Come then to Berytus, 
to Sidon, to Sarepta. The ford 



TRAVELS OF AN EGYPTIAN. m 

PAGE LINE 

2 1 . I of Nazana, where is it ? Aoutou, how is it ? They 
are neighbours of another city on the sea. Tyre the 

21 . 2 port is its name: water is carried to it in barks, 
it is richer in fish than in sands. 

Section 3. 

2 1 . 3 I will speak to thee also of two other small chapters. 
The entrance of Djaraou, and the order thou hast 
given to set this city in flames. A Mohar's office is 
a very painful one. 

21.4 Come, set off to return to Pakaikna. Where is 
the road of Aksaph ? 

21 . 5 In the environs of the city; come then to the 

mountain of Ousor : its top, 

21.6 how is it ? Where is the mountain of Ikama ? Who 
can master it? What way has the Mohar 

21.7 gone to Hazor ? How about its ford ? let me go to 
Hamath, 

21.8 to Takar, to Takar-Aar, the all-assembHng place of 
the Mohars ; come 

22 . I then, on the road that leads there. Make me to 

see Jah. How has one got to Matamim ? 
22.2 Do not repel us by thy teachings ; make us to know 

them. 
» 

Section 4. 
22 . 3 I will Speak to thee of the towns other than the 

preceding ones. Wentest thou not to the land of 

Takhis, to Cofer-Marlon, to Tamena, 
22 . 4 to Qodesh, to Dapour, to Adjai, and to Harnemata? 

Hast thou not seen Keriath-Anab, near to 

22.5 Beith-Tuphar ? Knowest thou not Odulam and 
Tsidphoth ? Knowest thou not the name of 



tI2 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 



PAGE LINE 



2 2.6 Khaouretsa, which is in the land of Aup ? 'Tis a 
bull on his frontier, the place where one sees the 
battle (mele'e) 

22.7 of the brave ones. Come then to the image of 
SiNA : let me know Ro- 

22 . 8 hob: represent to me Beith-Sheal as well as 

Keriathaal. The fords of the 

23 . I Jordan, how does one cross them ? let me know the 

passage to enter Mageddo, whereof it remains to 

speak. Thou art a Mohar, 
23 . 2 expert in courageous deeds. Is there found a Mohar 

like thee to march at the head of the soldiers, a Marina 
23 . 3 superior to thee to shoot an arrow ! Take care of 

the gulf in the ravine two thousand cubits deep ; full 

of rocks and rolling stones. 
23 . 4 Thou makest a detour : seizest thy bow ; prepares! 

the iron in thy left hand ; showest thyself to the good 

chiefs. 
23 . 5 Their eye looks down at thy hand : Slave, give camel 

for the Mohar to eat. Thou makest thy name of 

Mohar known, 
23 . 6 Master of the Captains of Egypt; thy name becomes 

like that of Kadjarti, the Chief of Assur, after his 

encounter with 
23 . 7 the hyenas in the wood, on the defile infected by 

the wood-hidden Shasous. 
23 . 8 Some of these were four cubits from the nose to the 

heel : fierce without mildness, not listening to caresses. 

23 . 9 Thou art alone, no guide with thee, nor troop be- 

hind thee. Didst thou not meet the Marmar ? He 
makes thee 

24 . I pass : thou must decide on departing, and knowest 

not the road. Anxiety seizes thee, thy hair bristles up : 



TRAVELS OF AN EGYPTIAN. 



"3 



PAGE LINE 

24 . 2 thy soul places itself in thy hand : thy way is full of 
rocks and rolling stones, no practicable passage ; the 
road is obstructed by 

24.3 hollies, nopals," aloes and bushes called "dog- 
wolf's shoes." On one side is the precipice, on the 
other rises the vertical wall of the mountain. 

24 . 4 Thou must advance going down. Thy car strikes 
the wall and thy horses are startled by the rebound : 

24 . 5 they stop at the bottom of the harness; thy reins are 
precipitated and left behind ; all fall do^vn, thou 
passest on. 

24 . 6 The horses break the pole and move it out of the 
path ; you cannot think of refastening them, cannot re- 

24 . 7 pair them. The seats are precipitated from their 
places ; the horses refuse to be loaded with them. 
Thy heart fails thee. Thou beginnest to 

24 . 8 reel ; the sky is clear : thirst torments thee : the 

enemy is behind thee, thou beginnest to quake ; 
25.1a thorny bush hinders thee ; thou placest it aside ; 
the horses wound themselves. 

25 . 2 At this moment thou art stretched flat and beholdest 

the sad satisfaction (of thy state) ? Entering Joppa 
25 . 3 thouseest a verdant inclosure in a ripe state. Thou 

makest an opening for eating the fruit Thou findest 

a pretty 
25 . 4 young girl who takes care of the gardens : she yields 

herself to thee as a companion ; and yields to thee 

her secret charms 
25 . 5 Thou art perceived : thou art subjected to an 

interrogatory ; thou art recognised as a Mohar. Thy 

tie of 

' Indian fig'. 



114 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

PAGE LINE 

25 . 6 sweet servitude, is settled by a compromise. Each 

night thou liest down ; a rug of hair 

25.7 is on thee : thou imprudently fallest asleep, a robber 
takes away thy bow, thy dagger, 

25.8 and thy quiver : thy reins are cut in the night, and 
thy horses run away. Thy valet takes a sliding path : 
the road mounts before him, he breaks 

26 . I thy car in pieces .... thy armour-pieces fall on 

the ground. 
26.2 They sink in the sand. Thou must have recourse 

to prayers, and thou gettest puzzled in thy address. 

Give me victuals and water, and I 
26 . 3 shall reach my safety. They pretend to be deaf, 

they do not listen : they do not consent. Thou 

orderest : 

26.4 " Pass to the forge ! Pass through the workshops ! 
Workmen in wood and metals, and workmen in 
leather come before thee : they do 

26.5 all thou wishest. They repair thy car, leaving aside 
all unserviceable pieces : they nail on again 

26 . 6 a new pole : they replace the fittings : they replace 
the leathers of the harness, and at the back 

26 . 7 they consolidate thy yoke : they replace the me- 
tallic ornaments : they incrust the marquetry: 

26 . 8 they put on the handle of thy whip and arrange 
the thongs. Thou leavest very hastily 

26 . 9 to fight at the perilous post; to perform valiant 
deeds. — 



Section V. 

27.1 Mapou, O chosen scribe ! Mohar, who knows his 
hand, Conductor of the Arunas, Chief of Tsebaou 



TRAVELS OF AN EGYPTIAN. 1 15 

PAGE LINE 

Explorer of the most distant limits of the land of Pa 
.... thou dost not 

27.2 answer me any how : thou givest me no account ; 
come let me tell all that happened to thee at the end 
of thy road. I begin 

27.3 for thee at the dwelling of Sestsou (Ramses) : hast 
thou not forced thy way therein. Hast thou not 
eaten fishes of . . . . ? 

27.4 Hast thou not bathed therein ? O come, let us 
describe Atsion to thee : where is its fortress ? 

27 . 5 Come to the house of Ouati ; to Sestsou-em-paif- 

nakhtou-ousormara ; to Sats - . . aal," 
27 . 6 also to Aksakaba ? I have pictured to you Ainini. 

Knowest thou not its customs ? Nekhai, 

27 . 7 and Rehobroth, hast thou not seen them since thy 

birth, O eminent Mohar? Raphia, 

27.8 how about its entrenchment? It covers the space of 
an aour going towards Gaza. 

27.9 Answer quickly, and speak to me of what I have 
said of a Mohar concerning thee. I have thunderstruck 

28.1 the strangers at thy name of Marina : I have told 
them of thy fierce humour, according to which word 
thou saidst " I am fit for all works j I have been 
taught by my father, who had verified his judgment 
millions of times. I 

28 . 2 can hold the reins, and also am skilful in action. 

Courage never forsakes my limbs, I am of the race 
Mentou." 

All that issues from thy tongue is very thwarting : thy 
phrases 

' Sestsoxi-cm-payf-nokhtort Ottsnrmara is the name of a fortress built by 
Ramses II, in Syria or Palestina and different from Ouati. The name 
means: "Ramses II in his victories." 



Il6 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

PAGE LINE 

28.3 are very puzzling : thou comest to me enveloped in 
difficulties, charged with recrimination. Thou cuttest 
off the discourse of those who come in' thy presence ; 
thou dost not disgust thyself with fumbling, and 

28 . 4 with a stern face sayest, " Hasten ye : and desist 
not ! How to do not to be able to succeed in it, and 
how to do to succeed in it?'" No ! I stop not, for I 
arrive, let thy preoccupation get calmed : 

28 . 5 tranquillize thy heart: prepare not privations for 
him who offerest himself to eat. I have mutilated 
the end of thy book, and I send it to thee back, as 
thou didst request ; thy orders accumulate on my 
tongue, they rest on my lips : 

28 . 6 but they are difficult to understand; an unskilful 
man could not distinguish them ; they are like the 
words of a man of Athou with a man of Abou. Yet 
thou art a scribe of Pharaoh ; whose goodness reveals 
the essence of the universe. 

28 . 7 Be gracious when seeing this work, and say not 
" Thou hast made my name repugnant to the rabble, 
to all men." See I have made for thee the portrait 
of the Mohar : I have travelled for thee through 
foreign provinces. I have collected 

28 . 8 for thee nations and cities after their customs. Be 
gracious to us : behold them calmly: find words to 
speak of them when thou wilt be with the Prince 

OUAH. 



' The order is quite contradictory. How can it be disobeyed, and how 
obeyed ? 



117 



THE LAMENTATIONS 



ISIS AND NEPHTHYS. 



TRANSLATED BY 



P. J. DE HORRACK. 



HTHIS papyrus was found by the late Mr. Passalaqua 
in the ruins of Thebes, in the interior of a statue re- 
presenting Osiris. It is divided into two parts, very 
distinct. The first contains chapters of the funeral 
ritual in the hieroglyphic writing ; the second, of 
which a translation here follows, consists of five pages 
of a fine hieratic writing of the lower epoch (probably 
about the time of the Ptolemies). 

This manuscript now belongs to the Royal Museum 
of Berlin, where it is registered under the No. 1425. 

A partial translation of it was published in 1852 by 
M. H. Brugsch, Die Adonisklage imd das Linoslicd. He 



Il8 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

translated the second page and the beginning of the 
third, but without giving the hieratic text. I have 
since published and completely translated this in- 
teresting document, Lcs Lamentations d' his et de 
NepJithys, Paris, 1866, and now give the English 
translation revised. 

The composition has a great analogy with the Book 
of Respirations, a translation of which will be added 
here. Both refer to the resurrection and renewed 
birth of Osiris (the type of man after his death) who, 
in this quality, is identified with the Sun, the diurnal 
renewal of which constantly recalled the idea of a 
birth eternally renewed. The object of the prayers 
recited by Isis and Nephthys is to effect the resurrec- 
tion of their brother Osiris, and also that of the defunct 
to whom the papyrus is consecrated. 



119 



TRANSLATION. 

Recital of the beneficial formulae 

made by the two divine Sisters ' 

in the house of Osiris who resides in the West, 

Great god, Lord of Abydos, 

in the month of Choiak, the twenty-fifth day. 

They are made the same in all the abodes of OsiRiS, 

and in all his festivals ; 

and they are beneficial to his soul, 

giving firmness to his body, 

diffusing joy through his being, 

giving breath to the nostrils, to the dryness of the throat ; 

they satisfy the heart of Isis as well as (that) of Nephthys ; 

they place HoRus on the throne of his father, 

(and) give life, stability, tranquillity to Osiris-Tentrut ' 

born of Takha-aa, who is surnamed Persais, the justified. 

It is profitable to recite them, 

in conformity with the divine words. 

EVOCATION BY ISIS.' She says : 

Come to thine abode, come to thine abode ! 
God An,"" come to thine abode ! 



^ Isis and Nephthys. 

' The name of Osiris is invariably prefixed to that of the deceased, the 
latter being always assimilated to this god. 

5 The first two sections are evocations addressed to Osiris defunct, ex- 
pressing- the grief of his two sisters at the loss of their brother, and 
referring to the search made by them after him. 

* One of the names of Osiris. 



120 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Thine enemies (exist) no more. 

Oh excellent Sovereign, come to thine abode i 

Look at me ; I am thy sister who loveth thee. 

Do not stay far from me, oh beautiful youth. 

Come to thine abode with haste, with haste. 

I see thee no more. 

My heart is full of bitterness on account of thee. 

Mine eyes seek thee ; 

I seek thee to behold thee. 

will it be long ere I see thee ? 

Will it be long ere I see thee ? 

(Oh) excellent Sovereign, 

will it be long ere I see thee ? 

Beholding thee is happiness ; 

Beholding thee is happiness. 

(Oh) god An, beholding thee is happiness. 

Come to her who loveth thee. 

Come to her who loveth thee. 

(Oh) Un-nefer,,' the justified. 

Come to thy sister, come to thy wife. 

Come to thy sister, come to thy wife. 

(Oh) Urt-het," come to thy spouse. 

I am thy sister by thy mother ; 

do not separate thyself from me. 

Gods and men (turn) their faces towards thee, 

weeping together for thee, whenever (they) behold me. 

I call thee in (my) lamentations 

(even) to the heights of Heaven, 

and thou hearest not my voice. 

I am thy sister who loveth thee on earth ; 

no one else hath loved thee more than I, 

(thy) sister, (thy) sister. 

' Surname of Osiris. 



LAMENTATIONS OF ISIS AND NEPHTHYS. 12 1 

EVOCATION BY NEPHTHYS. She says : 

Oh excellent Sovereign, come to thine abode. 

Rejoice, all thine enemies are annihilated ! 

Thy two sisters are near to thee, 

protecting thy funeral bed ; 

calling thee in weeping, 

thou who art prostrate on thy funeral bed. 

Thou seest (our) tender solicitude. 

Speak to us. Supreme Ruler, our Lord. 

Chase all the anguish which is in our hearts. 

Thy companions, who are gods and men, 

when they see thee, (exclaim) : 

Ours be thy visage, supreme Ruler, our Lord ; 

life for us is to behold thy countenance ; 

let not thy face be turned from us ; 

the joy of our hearts is to contemplate thee; 

(Oh) Sovereign, our hearts are happy in seeing thee. 

I am Nephthys, thy sister who loveth thee. 

Thine enemy is vanquished, 

he no longer existeth ! 

I am with thee, 

protecting thy members for ever and eternally. 

INVOCATION BY ISIS." She says : 

Hail (oh) god An ! 

Thou, in the firmament, shinest upon us each day. 

We no longer cease to behold thy rays. 

Thoth is a protection for thee. 

He placeth thy soul in the barque Ma-at, 

in that name which is thine, of God Moon. 

' The following- sections are vivocatinns addressed to Osiris under the 
forms of the Moon and the Sun, expressing the joy of his two sisters at 
having thus perceived him. 



122 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

I have come to contemplate thee. 

Thy beauties are in the midst of the Sacred Eye/ 

in that name which is thine, of Lord of the sixth day's 

festival. 
Thy companions are near to thee ; 
they separate themselves no more from thee. 
Thou hast taken possession of the Heavens, 
by the grandeur of the terrors which thou inspirest, 
in that name which is thine, of Lord of the fifteenth day's 

festival. 
Thou dost illuminate us like Ra ° each day. 
Thou shinest upon us like Atum.^ 
Gods and men live because they behold thee. 
Thou sheddest thy rays upon us. 
Thou givest light to the Two AVorlds. 
The horizon is filled by thy passage. 
Gods and men (turn) their faces towards thee ; 
nothing is injurious to them when thou shinest. 
Thou dost navigate in the heights (of Heaven) 
and thine enemy no longer exists ! 
I am thy protection each day. 
Thou who comest to us as a child each month, 
we do not cease to contemplate thee. 
Thine emanation heightens the brilliancy 
of the stars of Orion in the firmament, 
by rising and setting each day. 
I am the divine Sothis* behind him. 
I do not separate myself from him. 
The glorious emanation which proceedeth from thee 
giveth life to gods and men, 

' The Sacred-Eye here indicates the disc of the moon. 

' The sun in all his power. ' The setting sun. 

^ The star of Sirius where the soul of Isis dwelt. 



LAMENTATIONS OF ISIS AND NEPHTHYS. 123 

reptiles and quadrupeds. 

They live by it 

Thou comest to us from thy retreat at thy time, 

to spread the water of thy soul, 

to distribute the bread of thy being, 

that the gods may live and men also. 

Hail to the divine Lord ! 

There is no god like unto thee ! 

Heaven hath thy soul ; 

earth hath thy remains ; 

the lower heaven is in possession of thy mysteries. 

Thy spouse is a protection for thee. 

Thy son HoRUS is the king of the worlds. 

INVOCATION BY NEPHTHYS. She says : 
Excellent Sovereign ! come to thine abode ! 
Un-nefer the justified, come to Tattu. 
Oh fructifying Bull, come to Anap. 
Beloved of the Adytum, come to Kha. 
Come to Tattu, the place which thy soul prefers. 
The spirits of thy fathers second thee. 
Thy son, the youth HoRus, the child of (thy) two sisters," 
is before thee. 

At the dawn of light, I am thy protection each day. 
I never separate myself from thee. 
Oh god An, come to Sais. 
Sais is thy name. 

Come to Aper ; thou wilt see thy mother Neith.' 
Beautiful Child, do not stay far from her. 

' Isis having- with the aid of her sister Nephthys reunited the parts of 
Osiris' body dispersed by Set, formed of them the infant Horus. 

^ Neith personified the Lower Hemisphere, whence Osiris, the rising sun, 
appeared under the form of Horus. 



124 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Come to her nipples ; abundance is in them.' 

Excellent Brother, do not stay far from her. 

Oh son, come to Sais ! 

Osiris-Tarut, surnamed Nainai, born of Persais, the 

justified, 
come to Aper, thy city. 
Thine abode is Tab. 

Thou reposest (there) by thy divine mother, for ever. 
She protecteth thy members, 
she disperseth thine enemies, 
she is the protection of thy members for ever. 
Oh excellent Sovereign ! come to thine abode. 
Lord of Sais, come to Sais. 

INVOCATION BY ISIS.' She says : 

Come to thine abode ! come to thine abode. 

Excellent Sovereign, come to thine abode. 

Come (and) behold thy son Horus 

as supreme Ruler of gods and men. 

He hath taken possession of the cities and the districts, 

by the grandeur of the respect he inspires. 

Heaven and earth are in awe of him, 

the barbarians are in fear of him. 

Thy companions, who are gods and men, 

have become his, in the fuw hetnisphcres 

to accomplish thy ceremonies. 

Thy two sisters are near to thee, 

offering libations to thy person ; 

thy son Horus accomplisheth for thee the funeral offering : 

' The sun nightly sinks into the bosom of his mother Neith, who per- 
sonifies the Lower Hemisphere of heaven. 

' Osiris ag^ain coming forth under the form of Horus-conqueror, (or the 
Rising Sun) becomes the Lord of the universe. 



LAMENTATIONS OF ISIS AND NEPHTHYS. 1 25 

of bread, of beverages, of oxen and of geese. 

ToTH chanteth thy festival-songs, 

invoking thee by his beneficial formulfe. 

The children of Horus are the protection of thy members, 

benefiting thy soul each day. 

Thy son HoRUS saluteth thy name 

(in) thy mysterious abode, 

in presenting thee the things consecrated to thy person. 

The gods hold vases in their hands 

to make libations to thy being. 

Come to thy companions, 

Supreme Ruler, our Lord ! 

Do not separate thyself from them. 



When this is recited, 

the place (where one is) 

is holy in the extreme. 

Let it be seen or heard by no one, 

excepting by the principal Kher-heb ' and the Sam.- 

Two women, beautiful in their members, 

having been introduced, 

are made to sit down on the ground 

at the principal door of the Great Hall.' 

(Then) the names of Isis and Nephthys 

' The hig-h-priest, reader !n the panegyrics. 

° The high-priest presiding over funeral ceremonies and rituals. 

3 The Great Hall wherein the Judgment-scene was painted. 



126 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

are inscribed on their shoulders. 

Crystal vases (full) of water 

are placed in their right hands ; 

loaves of bread made in Memphis 

in their left hands. 

Let them pay attention to the things done 

at the third hour of the day, 

and also at the eighth hour of the day. 

Cease not to recite this book 

at the hour of the ceremony ! 

It is finished. 



127 



HYMN TO AME N-R A. 



TRANSLATED BY 

C. W. GOODWIN, M.A. 



'X'HIS Hymn is inscribed upon an hieratic papyrus 
No. 17 in the collection of Papyri at the Museum of 
Boulaq. A facsimile of the papyrus has been pub- 
lished by M. Marriette, Les papyrus Egyptiens du 
Musee de Boulaq, fo. Paris 1272, pi. 11-13. It is not 
a very long composition, being contained in eleven 
pages of moderate size, and consisting of only twenty 
verses. It has the advantage of being nearly perfect 
from beginning to end, written in a legible hand, and 
free from any great difficulties for the translator. 

From the handwriting of the papyrus it may be 
judged to belong to the XlXth dynasty, or about the 
fourteenth century B.C. It purports to be only a copy 
and the composition itself may be very much earlier. 



128 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

In the original the beginning of each verse is indi- 
cated by rubricated letters, each verse is also divided 
into short phrases by small red points, these are 
indicated in the translation by colons. 

This translation has just been published with 
exegetical notes in the Transactions of the Society of 
Biblical ArchcEology, Vol. II. page 250. 



129 



HYMN TO AMEN-RA. 



Praise to Amen-Ra : 
the Bull in An" Chief of all gods : 
the good god beloved : 
giving life to all animated things : 
to all fair cattle : 

Hail to thee Amen-Ra Lord of the thrones of the earth : 
Chief in Aptu:' 

the Bull of his mother in his field : 
turning his feet towards the land of the South : 
Lord of the heathen, Prince of Punt:' 
the Ancient of heaven, the Oldest of the earth : 
Lord of all existences, the Support of things, the Support 
of all things. 

The ONE in his works, single among the gods : 
the beautiful Bull of the cycle of gods : 
Chief of all the gods : 
Lord of truth, Father of the gods : 
Maker of men, Creator of beasts : 
Lord of existences. Creator of fruitful trees : 
Maker of herbs, Feeder of cattle : 

Good Being begotten of Ptah, beautiful youth beloved : 
to whom the gods give honour : 
Maker of things below and above, Enlightener of the 

earth : 
sailing in heaven in tranquillity : 

' An or On "the house of the Obelisk," or Heliopolis. 
' Thebes. ' Arabia. 

10 



130 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

King Ra true speaker, Chief of the earth : 
Most glorious one, Lord of terror : 
Chief creator of the whole earth. 

3 Supporter of affairs above every god : 
in whose goodness the gods rejoice : 

to whom adoration is paid in the great house : 

crowned in the house of flame : 

whose fragrance the gods love : 

when he comes from Arabia : 

Prince of the dew, traversing foreign lands : 

benignly approaching the Holy Land.' 

4 The gods attend his feet : 

whilst they acknowledge His Majesty as their Lord : 
Lord of terror most awful : 

greatest of spirits, mighty in : 

bring offerings, make sacrifices : 
salutation to thee, Maker of the gods : 
Supporter of the heavens, Founder of the earth. 

5 Awake in strength MiN' Amen : 
Lord of eternity. Maker everlasting : 

Lord of adoration. Chief in : 

strong with beautiful horns : 

Lord of the crown high plumed : 

of the fair turban (wearing) the white crown ; 

the coronet' and the diadem* are the ornaments of his 

face : 
he is invested with Ami-ha : 
the double crown is his head-gear, (he wears) the red 

crown : 
benignly he receives the Atef-crown : 
on whose south and on whose north is love : 

' Palestine or Arabia. ' Chem. 

' Mahennu. • Uati. 



HYMN TO AMEN-RA. 131 

the Lord of life receives the sceptre : 
Lord of the breastplate armed with the whip. 

6 Gracious ruler crowned with the white crown : 
Lord of beams, Maker of light : 

to whom the gods give praises : 

who stretches forth his arms at his pleasure : 

consuming his enemies with flame : 

whose eye subdues the wicked : ' 

sending forth its dart to the roof of the firmament : 

sending its arrows against Naka to consume him. 

7 Hail to thee Ra Lord of truth : 

whose shrine is hidden, Lord of the gods : 

Chepra' in his boat : 

at whose command the gods were made : 

Athom Maker of men : 

supporting their works, giving them life : 

distinguishing the colour of one from another : 

listening to the poor who is in distress : 

gentle of heart when one cries unto him. 

8 Deliverer of the timid man from the violent : 
judging the poor, the poor and the oppressed : 
Lord of wisdom whose precepts are wise : 

at whose pleasure the Nile overflows : 
Lord of mercy most loving : 
at whose coming men live : 
opener of every eye : 
proceeding from the firmament : 
causer of pleasure and light : 
at whose goodness the gods rejoice : 
their hearts revive when they see him. 

' Frequent allusions are made in the papyri to the production of created 
thing's from the eyes of Ra or of Horus. Noxious things were supposed to 
be produced from the eye of Set or Typhon. 
' The creator. 



132 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

9 ! Ra adored in Aptu :' 

high-cro\vned in the house of the obelisk :' 

King (Ani) Lord of the New-moon festival : 

to whom the sixth and seventh days are sacred : 

Sovereign of life health and strength, Lord of all the gods: 

who art visible in the midst of heaven : 

ruler of men : 

whose name is hidden from his creatures : 

in his name which is Amen.' 
[O Hail to thee who art in tranquillity : 

Lord of magnanimity strong in apparel : 

Lord of the crown high plumed : 

of the beautiful turban, of the tall white crown : 

the gods love thy presence : 

when the double crown is set upon thy head : 

thy love pervades the earth : 

thy beams arise men are cheered by thy rising : 

the beasts shrink from thy beams : 

thy love is over the southern heaven : 

thy heart is not (unmindful of) the northern heaven : 

thy goodness (all) hearts : 

love subdues (all) hands : 

thy creations are fair overcoming (all) the earth : 

(all) hearts are softened at beholding thee. 
II The ONE maker of existences : 

(creator) of maker of beings : 

from whose eyes mankind proceeded : 

of whose mouth are the gods : 

maker of grass for the cattle (oxen, goats, asses, pigs, 
sheep) : 

fruitful trees for men : 

causing the fish to live in the river : 

' Thebes. ° Heliopolis. 

' The name Amen means "secret," or "hidden." 



HYMN TO AMEN-RA. I33 

the birds to fill the air : 

giving breath to those in the egg : 

feeding the bird that flies : 

giving food to the bird that perches : 

to the creeping thing and the flying thing equally : 

providing food for the rats in their holes : 

feeding the flying things in every tree. 

12 Hail to thee for all these things : 
the ONE alone with many hands : 
lying awake while all men lie (asleep) : 
to seek out the good of his creatures : 
Amen sustainer of all things : 
Athom Horus of the horizon :' 
homage to thee in all their voices : 
salutation to thee for thy mercy unto us : 
protestations to thee who hast created us. 

1 3 Hail to thee say all creatures : 
salutation to thee from every land : 

to the height of heaven, to the breadth of the earth : 

to the depths of the sea : 

the gods adore Thy Majesty : 

the spirits thou hast created exalt (thee) : 

rejoicing before the feet of their begetter : 

they cry out welcome to thee : 

father of the fathers of all the gods : 

who raises the heavens who fixes the earth. 

14 Maker of beings, Creator of existences : 

Sovereign of life health and strength. Chief of the gods : 

we worship thy spirit who alone hast made us : 

we whom thou hast made (thank thee) that thou hast 

given us birth : 
we give to thee praises on account of thy mercy to us. 

' Harmachis. 



134 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

1 5 Hail to thee Maker of all beings : 
Lord of truth father of the gods : 
Maker of men creator of beasts : 
Lord of grains : 

making food for the beast of the field : 

Amen the beautiful Bull : 

beloved in Aptu : ' 

high crowned in the house of the obehsk :' 

twice turbaned in An : 

judge of combatants in the great hall : 

Chief of the great cycle of the gods. 

16 The ONE alone without peer : 
Chief in Aptu : 

King over his cycle of gods : 
living in truth for ever : 
(Lord) of the horizon, Horus of the East : 
he who hath created the soil (with) silver and gold : 
the precious lapis lazuli at his pleasure : 
spices and incense various for the peoples : 
fresh odours for thy nostrils : 
benignly come to the nations : 
Amen-Ra Lord of the thrones of the earth : 
Chief in Aptu : 
the Sovereign on his throne. 
I 7 King alone, si?igle among the gods : 

of many names, unknown is their number : 

rising in the eastern horizon setting in the western 

horizon : 
overthrowing his enemies : 
davraing on (his) children daily and every day : 
Thoth raises his eyes : 
he delights himself with his blessings ; 

" Thebes. • Heliopolis. 



HYMN TO AMEN-RA. I35 

the gods rejoice in his goodness who exalts those who 
are loioly : 

Lord of the boat and the barge : 

they conduct thee through the firmament in peace. 
18 Thy servants rejoice : 

beholding the overthrow of the wicked : 

his limbs pierced with the sword 

fire consumes him : 

his soul and body are annihilated. 
:g Naka' saves his feet : 

the gods rejoice : 

the servants of the Sun are in peace : 

An is joyful : 

the enemies of Athom are overthrown and Aptu is in 
peace, An is joyful : 

the giver of life is pleased : 

at the overthrow of the enemies of her Lord : 

the gods of Kher-sa make salutations : 

they of the Adytum prostrate themselves. 
10 They behold the mighty one in his strength : 

the image of the gods of truth the Lord of Aptu : 

in thy name of Doer of justice : 

Lord of sacrifices, the Bull of offerings : 

in thy name of Amen the Bull of his mother : 

maker of men : 

causing all things which are to exist : 

in thy name of Athom Chepra :' 

the great Hawk making (each) body to rejoice : 

benignly making (each) breast to rejoice : 

type of creators high crowned : 

. . (Lord) of the wing : 

Uati^ is on his forehead : 

' The serpent. " Creator. ' The diadem. 



136 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

the hearts of men seek him : 

when he appears to mortals : 

he rejoices the earth with his goings forth : 

Hail to thee Amen-Ra Lord of the thrones of the world : 

beloved of his city when he shines forth." 

Finished well as it was found." 



* Many of the phrases in this beautiful Hymn are ambiguous even 
where the original text is perfect. 

' This note is subscribed in the original papyrus. 



137 
THE TALE 

OF THE 

TWO BROTHERS. 



TRANSLATED BY 

P. le page renouf. 



'T'HE papyrus containing the document of which 
the following pages are a translation was pur- 
chased from Madame D'Orbiney in 1857 by the 
Trustees of the British Museum. It consists of nine- 
teen pages of ten lines of hieratic writing together 
with an endorsement. A few portions of the text 
which had been obliterated have been meddled with 
by a person unacquainted with the language who has 
tried to restore them in modern ink. A very beauti- 
ful facsimile of the papyrus was published in i860 in 
the Select Papyri in the Hieratic Character front the 
Collections of the British Museum. 

The attention of the public was first directed to 
this document by an article of the late M. Emile de 
Rouge in the Revue Archeolo^ique (tom. ix. p. 385), 
in which that very eminent scholar gave a full de- 
scription of the papyrus together with a complete 
analysis of its contents and a translation of a con- 
siderable portion of the text. The papyrus was sub- 
sequently described and commented upon in the 
Ca^nbridge Essays of 1858 by Mr. C. W. Goodwin in 
an article upon Hieratic Papyri which may be con- 
sidered as marking a new sra in the history of modern 
Egyptian philology. The publication of the text in 
i860 was accompanied by a valuable preliminary 
notice from the pen of Dr. S. Birch. In 1863 the 



138 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

present translator gave a transliteration and inter- 
linear version of the first thirteen pages of the papyrus 
in an article' of the Atlantis (vol. iv.) in reply to the 
attacks of Sir G. C. Lewis. In the year 1864 M. 
Chabas devoted one of the most important articles of 
the second series of his Melanges Egyptologiqice to the 
analysis of a long and difficult portion of this text. 
Two complete translations have been published, one 
in German by Dr. H. Brugsch in his Atcs dem Orient 
(Berlin 1864), the other in French by M. Maspero. 

The present translator has had no opportunity of 
seeing M. Maspero's version nor did he know of the 
existence of that of Dr. Brugsch till long after his 
own was completed. On one important point Dr. 
Brugsch's version, though less literal than the others, 
perhaps best expresses the sense of the original.^ 

The papyrus now in the British Museum was in 
the possession of Seti II of the XlXth dynasty 
whilst he was still heir presumptive to the throne. 
The tale which it contains is the work of Anna (or, as 
his name is often transcribed, Enna) one of the most 
distinguished scribes and functionaries of the period. 
It is to him that we are indebted for no inconsider- 
able a portion of the Egyptian literature which has 
been preserved in manuscript. The handwriting of 
the papyrus is very beautiful and read without 
difficulty wherever there are no lacimcB, and the text 
is in general simple and easy to be translated. Dif- 
ficulties, however, occur here and there, and future 
translators will no doubt discover niceties of language 
or even important grammatical forms which have 
escaped the notice of their predecessors. 

* Separately published under the title of Sir G. C. Lewis on the deci- 
phermenl and interpretation of Dead Languages. London, 1S63. 

^ The "heart" which was concealed in the flower of the Cedar is here 
rendered " soul." Compare some observations in the Zeilsch. f. JEgyft, 
Sprache, 1870, p. 137. 



139 



TRANSLATION. 



There were two brothers, (children) of one mother and of 
one father. Anpu was the name of the elder, Bata that of 
the younger. 

Anpu had a house and a wife, and his younger brother 
was like a son to him. He it was who . . . clothes for 
him. He followed after his cattle . ... he who did the 
ploughing .... did all the labours of the fields. 

Behold, his younger brother was so good a labourer that 

there was not his equal in the whole land But when 

the days had multiplied after this the younger brother was 
with his cattle according to his daily wont, he took them to 
his house every evening ; he was laden with all the herbs of 
the field 

(The elder brother) sat with his wife and ate and drank 
(whilst the younger was in) the stable with his cattle. But 

when the day dawned he rose before his elder 

brother, took bread to the field and called the (labourers) to 
eat in the field. 

He followed after his cattle and they told him where the 
best grasses were. He understood all that they said and he 
took them to the place where the best herbage was which 
they wanted. 

And the cattle which was before him became exceedingly 
beautiful, and they multiplied exceedingly. And when the 
time for ploughing came his elder brother said to him " Let 



I40 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

US take our teams for ploughing, because the land has made 
its appearance. The time is excellent for ploughing it. So do 
thou come with seed for we shall accomplish the ploughing." 
So said he. 

And the younger brother proceeded to do whatever his 

elder told him But when the day dawned they went 

to the field with their and worked at their tillage 

and they enjoyed themselves exceedingly at their work.. 

' But when the days had multiplied after this they were in 

the field (the elder brother) sent his junior, saying, 

" Go and fetch seed for us from the village.'' 

And the younger brother found the wife of the elder 
sitting at her toilet. And he said to her " Arise and give me 
seed that I may go back to the field because my elder 
brother wishes me to return without delay." 

And she said to him " Go, open the bin, and take thyself 
whatever thou wilt, my hair would fall by the way." 

The youth entered his stable, he took a large vessel for he 
wished to take a great deal of seed and he loaded himself 
with grain and went out mth it. 

And she said to him " How much have you on " 

And he said to her "Two measures of barley and three of 
wheat ; in all five, which are on my arm." 

And she spoke to him saying "What strength there is in 
thee, indeed, I observe thy vigour every day." Her heart 

knew him She seized upon him and said to him 

" Come let us lie down for an instant. Better for thee . . . 
beautiful clothes." 

The youth became like a panther with fury on account 

' I.e. It came to pass after many days. 



TALE OF THE TWO BROTHERS. I41 

of the shameful discourse which she had addressed to him. 
And she was alarmed exceedingly. 

He spoke to her, saying, "Verily, I have looked upon 
thee in the light of a mother and thy husband in that of a 
father to me. {For he is older than I, as much as if he had 
begotten me.) What a great abomination is this which thou 
hast mentioned to me. Do not repeat it again to me, and I 
will not speak of it to any one. Verily, I will not let any 
thing of it come forth from my mouth to any man." 

He took up his load and went forth to the field. He 
came to his elder brother and they accomplished the task of 
their labour. But when the time of evening had come the 
elder brother returned to his house. His younger brother 
behind his cattle .... loaded with all things of the field. 
He led his cattle before him to lie down in their stable. . 



Behold, the wife of his elder brother was alarmed at the 
discourse which she had held. She .... She made her- 
self like one who has suffered violence from a man for she 
wished to say to her husband " It is thy younger brother who 
has done me violence." 

Her husband returned home at evening according to his 
daily wont. He came to his house and he found his wife 
lying as if murdered by a ruffian. 

She did not pour water upon his hand according to her 
wont, she did not light the lamp before him, his house was in 
darkness. She was lying uncovered. 

Her husband said to her, "Who has been conversing with 
thee ? " She said " No one has conversed with me except 
thy younger brother ; when he came to fetch seed for thee, 
he found me sitting alone, and he said to me ' Come and let 
us lie down for an instant .....' that is what he said to me. 



142 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

" But I did not listen to him. ' Behold, am I not thy 
mother and thy elder brother is he not like a father to thee,' 
that is what I said to him, and he got alarmed and did me 
violence that I might not make a report to thee, but if thou 
lettest him live I shall kill myself. Behold he was come . . 



And the elder brother became like a panther .... he 
made his dagger sharp, and took it in his hand. And the 
elder brother put himself behind the door of his stable to 
kill his younger brother on his return at evening to bring his 
cattle to the stable. 

But when the sun set he loaded himself with all the herbs 
of the field, according to his daily wont. And he came, and 
the first cow entered into the stable and it said to its keeper, 
" Verily, thy elder brother is standing before thee with his 
dagger to slay thee. Betake thyself from before him." 

He heard the sf)eech of the first ox ; the next one entered 
and it spoke in the same way. He looked under the door 
of the stable, and he saw the two feet of his elder brother, 
who was standing behind the door with a dagger in his hand. 

He laid down his load upon the ground and betook him- 
self to flight, his elder brother following him with his dagger. 

The younger brother invoked the Sun-god Horus of 
the two horizons, saying, " My good Lord, it is thou who 
distinguishest wrong from right ! " The Sun-god stopped 
to listen to all his wailings. And the Sun-god made a large 
stream, which was full of crocodiles between him and his 
elder ; one of them was on one bank and one upon the 
other. 

And the elder brother struck his hand twice (with rage) 
at not killing him : he did. 



TALE OF THE TWO BROTHERS. 



143 



And the younger brother called to him from the bank, 
saying, " Stop till daybreak, and when the sun's disc comes 
forth I shall have an explanation with thee in its presence 

to give the of the truth, for I have never done 

wrong to thee but I will never live in the places wherein 
thou art. I am going to the mountain of the Cedar." 

But when the day dawned the Sun-god, Horus of both 
horizons, came forth and each of them saw the other. 

The young man spoke to his elder brother, saying, " What 
is this, thy coming to kill me wrongfully? Hearest thou 
not what my mouth speaketh ? Verily, I am thy younger 
brother, in very deed, and thou wert to me as a father, and 
thy wife as a mother. 

" Behold, is it not because thou didst send me to fetch seed 
for us, thy wife said to me ' Come let us lie down for an 
instant,' but see, she has turned it to thee the wrong way." 

And he made him understand what had happened with 
reference to himself with his wife. He swore by the Sun- 
god, HoRUS of both horizons saying " Thy intent is to slay 
me wrongfully, thou art with thy dagger. . . ." and he took 
a sharp knife, cut off his phallus and threw it into the water 
and the fish swallowed it. 

But he became faint and swooned away. And his elder 
brother felt compassion exceedingly. And he stood weeping 
and crying, not being able to pass over to the place where 
his younger brother was, on account of the crocodiles. 

But the younger brother called to him saying " Behold 
thou didst imagine a crime : thou didst not imagine that it 
was a virtuous action or a thing which I had done for thee. 

" Now return to thy house, and do thou look after thy cattle, 
thyself; for I will no longer remain in a place where thou 
art. I go to the mountain of the Cedar. 



144 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

" But as to what thou shalt do for me, and thy coming to 
look after me, thou shalt learn, namely ; Things will happen 
to me. 

" I shall take my heart and place it in the top of the flower 
of the Cedar, and when the Cedar is cut down, it will fall 
to the ground. 

" Thou shalt come to seek it. If thou art seven years in 
the search of it let not thy heart be depressed, and when 
thou hast found it thou shalt place it in a cup of cold water ; 
oh then I shall live (once more) and fling back a reply to an 
attack. 

" And this thou shalt learn, namely, that the things have 
happened to me. When thou shalt take a jug of beer into 
thy hand and it turns into froth, then delay not ; for to thee 
of a certainty is the issue coming to pass." 

Then he departed to the mountain of the Cedar and the 
elder brother returned to his house. He put his hand upon 
his head and smeared it with dust ; and when he came to 
his house he slew his wife and flung her to the dogs. . But 
he continued mourning for his younger brother. 

But when the days had multiplied after this, the younger 
brother was at the mountain of the Cedar. There was no 
one with him and his time was spent in hunting the animals 
of the country. He returned at evening to lie down under 
the Cedar on the top of whose flowers his heart lay. 

But when the days had multiplied after this he built wth 
his hands a dwelling on the mountain of the Cedar, which 
was filled with all the good things which the possessor of a 
house desires. 

And having gone out of his dwelling he met the company 
of the gods who were going forth to do their will in their 
land of Egypt. 



TALE OF THE TWO BROTHERS. 1 45 

The divine company spoke by one of them who said to him 
" Ho ! Bata, Bull of the divine company ! dost thou remain 
alone, and abandonest thou thy country on account of the 
wife of Anpu, thy elder brother ? Behold, his wife is slain, 
because thou hast flung back replies to all the attacks made 
upon thee." 

Their hearts pitied him exceedingly. And the Sun-god, 
HoRUS of both horizons said to Chnum, " O, make a wife 
for Bata, that he may not remain alone." 

And Chnum made him a companion who as she sat was 
more beautiful in her limbs than any woman in the whole 
earth, the whole godhead was in her. 

The seven Hathors came to see her and they said with 
one mouth that she would die a violent death. And he 
loved her exceedingly and she remained in his house whilst 
he spent his time in hunting the animals of the country and 
bringing the game to her. 

And he said to her " Do not go out, lest the Sea carry thee 
off, and I may not know how to rescue thee from him, be- 
cause I am a woman even as thou art, for my heart is on 
the top of the flower of the Cedar and if any one finds it I 
shall be overcome by him." And he revealed to her his heart 
in all its height. 

And when the days had multiplied after this Batu went 
out to hunt the animals after his daily wont, and the young 
woman went out to take a turn under the Cedar which was 
near her house. 

And the Sea beheld her and dashed its waters in pursuit 
of her and she betook herself to flight before it and entered 
into her house. 

And the Sea cried to the Cedar saying " O that I could 
seize upon her ! " And the Cedar carried off one of her fragrant 

11 



146 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

locks, and the Sea carried it to Egypt, and deposited it jn 
the place where the washers of the King were. 

And the odour of the lock grew into the clothes of the 
King. And a quarrel arose among the royal washers on 
account of the overpowering odour in the clothes of the 
King. The quarrel continued among them day after day, so 
that they no longer knew what they were doing. 

And the Chief of the washers of the King went out to the 
water-side and his heart was exceedingly oppressed on 
account of the quarrels in which he was every day involved. 

And he stopped and staid at the spot in the midst of 
which lay the fragrant lock in the water. And he stooped 
down and picked it up and he found the odour of it delicious, 
exceedingly, and he took it to the King. 

And it was carried to the doctors, the magicians of the 
King. They said to the "King — " The lock belongs to a 
daughter of the Sun-god, Horus of both horizons, the essence 
of the whole godhead is in her. 

" But the whole earth is in obeisance before thee, send 
therefore envoys to every place to seek her ; but as for the 
envoy who is for the mountain of the Cedar, send out with 
him troops in great numbers to bring her." 

His Majesty replied, " Good exceedingly is that which 
ye have said to us ! " And the envoys were sent. 

But when the days had multiplied after this the troops 
that went to every place returned to give their reports to His 
Majesty, but those returned not who had gone to the moun- 
tain of the Cedar ; Bata had slain them. 

One of them returned to tell the tale to His INIajesty. 
And His Majesty once more sent out troops, many bow-men 
and also cavalry to fetch her, and there was a woman with 



TALE OF THE TWO BROTHERS. 147 

them, into whose hand one had given all the most beautiful 
trinkets for a woman. 

And the woman came with her into Egypt, and rejoicing 
was made for her throughout the whole land. And His 
Majesty loved her exceedingly and she was raised to the 
dignity of a Princess. 

And it was said to her that she should reveal the ways of 
her husband and she said to His Majesty " Cause the Cedar 
to be cut down and he will be destroyed." 

And troops were sent out with their swords to cut down 
the Cedar. They came to the Cedar and cut down the 
flower upon which lay the heart of Bata. He fell dead in 
an instant 

But when the dawn of the next day appeared the Cedar 
was cut down, and Anpu the elder brother of Bata entered 
his house. He sat down and washed his hand and there 
was given to him a jug of beer, but this turned into froth.' 
Another jug was then given him of wine,, but this at once 
became troubled. 

Thereupon he took his staff and his sandals, likewise his 
clothes and his instruments of labour ; and he betook him- 
self to a journey towards the mountain of the Cedar. 

He came to the dwelling of his younger brother and found 
him lying dead upon the floor. He wept when he saw his 
younger brother lying in the state of death, and he went out 
to seek for his brother's heart under the Cedar where he used 
to lie in the evening. 

' I have retained this translation out of deference to the authority of 
M. Chabas. But the Egyptian word self seems rather akin to C10TC|, 
char, limpid, and in antithesis to the word troulted which occurs im- 
mediately afterwards. - 



148 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Three years he sought without finding. But when the 
fourth year was come his heart longed to return to Egypt 
and he said " I will go to-morrow." Such was his intention. 

But when the dawn of the next day appeared he continued 
to walk under the Cedar, occupied with his search and he 
returned in the evening. 

He looked after his search once more and found a pod. 
He examined under it ; and, behold, there was the heart of 
his younger brother. He brought a vessel of cold water, 
dropped the heart into it, and sat down according to his 
daily wont. 

But when the night was come the heart absorbed the 
water. Bata trembled in all his limbs and continued 
looking at his elder brother, but his heart was faint. 

Then Anpu took the vessel of cold water which his 
brother's heart was in. And when the latter had drunk it 
up his heart rose in its place and he became as he had been 
before. Each embraced the other and each one of them 
held conversation with his companion. 

And Bata said to his elder brother, " Behold I am about 
to become a great Bull with all the sacred marks, but with 
an unknown history. 

" Do thou sit upon my back and when the Sun-god rises 
we shall be in the place where my wife is. (Answer whether 
thou wilt take me there ?) For there will be given to thee 
all good things, yea, thou shalt be loaded with silver and 
gold for bringing me to the King, for I shall become a great 
marvel and there will be rejoicing for me in the whole land. 
Then do thou return to thy village." 

But when the dawn of the next day appeared Bata had 
assumed the form which he had mentioned to his elder 
brother. And Anpu, his elder brother, sat upon his back at 
dawn of day. 



TALE OF THE TWO BROTHERS. 1 49 

And he arrived at the place which had been spoken of 
and information was given to His Majesty, who inspected 
him and rejoiced exceedingly and celebrated a festival above 
all description, a mighty marvel and rejoicings for it were 
made throughout the whole land. 

And there was brought silver and gold for the elder 
brother who staid in his village. But to (the Bull) there 
were given many attendants and many offerings and the King 
loved him exceedingly above all men in the whole land. 

But when the days had multiplied after this he entered 
the sanctuary and stood in the very place where the Princess 
was. And he spoke to her, saying ; " Look upon me, I am 
alive indeed." 

And she said to him "And who then art thou ?" And he 
said to her " I am Bata, thou gavest information for the 
cutting down of the Cedar to the King as to where I was 
that I might no longer live. But look upon me for I am 
really alive. I am a Bull." 

And the Princess was frightened exceedingly at the speech 
which her husband addressed to her. And he went out of 
the sanctuary. 

But when the King sat down to make a holiday with her, 
and as she was at the table of His Majesty and he was 
exceedingly gracious to her she said to him "Come swear to 
me by God that you will grant whatever I ask." 

And he granted all that she asked ; saying, " Let me eat 
the liver of the Bull for you have no need of him." 

So spake she to him and it grieved him exceedingly that 
she spake it and the heart of His Majesty was exceedingly 
troubled. 

But when the dawn of the next day appeared there was 
celebrated a great festival with offerings to the Bull. 



150 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

But one of the Chief Royal Officers of His Majesty was 
made to go and slay the Bull. And as they were killing 
him and he was in the hands of the attendants he shook his 
neck and two drops of blood fell upon the two doorposts of 
His Majesty ; one was on the one side of the great staircase 
of His Majesty, the other upon the other side ; and they 
grew up into two mighty Persea trees, each of which stood 
alone. 

And they went and told His Majesty saying; "Two 
mighty Persea trees have spmng up as a great omen of 
good fortune to His Majesty during the night, near the 
great staircase of His Majesty and there is rejoicing for 
them through the whole land and offerings are made to 
them." 

And when the days had multiplied after this His Majesty 
was wearing the collar of lapis lazuli with a wreath of all 
kinds of flowers upon his neck. He was in his brazen 
chariot and he went forth from the royal palace to see the 
Persea tree. 

And the Princess went out on a two-horsed car behind 
the King. And His Majesty sat under one of the Perseas 
and (the Tree) said to his wife " Ho ! thou false one ! I am 
Bata, I am living still, I have transformed myself Thou 
gavest information to the King of where I was that I might 
be slain. I then became a Bull and thou didst cause me to 
be slain." 

And when the days had multiplied after this the Princess 
was in the good graces of His Majesty, and he showed her 
favour. And she said to him " Come swear to me by God, 
saying, ' Whatever the Princess shall ask me I will consent 
to it.'" 

And he consented to all that she said. And she said 
" Cause the two Persea trees to be cut down and let them 



TALE OF THE TWO BROTHERS. 151 

be made into beautiful planks." And he consented to all 
that she said. 

And when the days had multiplied after this His Majesty 
made cunning workmen come to cut down the two Persea 
trees of the King, and there stood by looking on the royal 
spouse, the Princess. And there flew a splinter and it 
entered into the mouth of the Princess and she perceived 
that she had conceived all that she desired. 

And when the days had multiplied after this she brought 
forth a male child, and they went to the King and paid to 
him "There is born to thee a male child." 

And the child was brought and there were given to it a 
nurse and waiting woman, and rejoicings were made through 
the whole land. They sat down to make a holiday (and 
they gave him his name) and His Majesty at once loved him 
exceedingly and raised him to the dignity of Prince of 
^Ethiopia. 

But when the days had multiplied after this His Majesty 
made him hereditary Prince of the whole land. 

And when the days had multiplied after this and he had 

completed many years as hereditary Prince His 

Majesty flew up to heaven and (the Prince) said "Let the 
Princes and Nobles of His Majesty be summoned and I 
shall inform them of all the events which have happened to 

me " His wife was brought to him and he had a 

reckoning with her in presence of them, and they spoke 
their speech. 

And his elder brother was brought to him, and he made 
him hereditary Prince of the whole land. And he reigned 
for thirty years as King of Egypt. 

And when he had completed (those) thirty years of life, 
his elder brother arose in his place, on the day of his death. 



152 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

(Finished) happily as an offering from the Scribe of the 
double white house, Kakabu, of the double white house 
of His Majesty. The Scribe Hora, and the Scribe 
Meriemap. Made by the Scribe Anna, the Master of the 
Rolls. Whatsoever he says in the Rolls may Thoth guard 
from contradiction ! 

The Standard Bearer at the King's left hand, the Com- 
mander in Chief of the bo'vvmen, the Royal Prince Seti, be- 
loved of Ptah." 



This is the name and title of the owner of the papyrus. It is here 
written in large characters, and it is repeated on the back of the book. 



153 



THE TALE 



DOOMED PRINCE. 



FROM A PAPYRUS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



TRANSLATED BY 

C. W. GOODWIN, Esq. 



'JTHIS singular romance which is unfortunately im- 
perfect is contained in four pages on the reverse of 
the Harris Papyrus, No. 500 now in the collection at 
the British Museum. The conclusion of the narrative 
is wanting, and owing to the fragile condition of the 
MSS. there are several serious lacunae, but these I 
have endeavoured to fill up as far as I could safely 
do so by an examination of the context. 

The date of the composition is uncertain, but from 



154 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

the simplicity of its style I should feel inclined to 
place it in the XVIIIth Dynasty. The translation 
here given is that which I read before the Society of 
Biblical Archaeology in March, 1874, in whose Trans- 
actions Vol. iii. part I, it is also printed with exegetical 
notes. 



iSS 



HARRIS PAPYRUS 500— VERSO Page o. 
TRANSLATION. 

The words in parentheses supply the lacunae of the text from 
conjecture. 

LINE 

1 It is told (that there was once) a King, who had no 
male offspring. (He prayed for an heir) and the gods 
listened to his request. 

2 They decreed that one should be bom to him. He 
lay with his wife in the night, and behold (she became) 
pregnant. She completed the month 

3 of parturition, and then brought forth a male child. 
When the Hathors ' iParca) came to greet him at his 
birth, they said 

4 that he would either die by a crocodile, a serpent, or 
by a dog. When the people who were about the child 
heard it, they went (and told) these 

5 things to His Majesty. His Majesty was exceedingly 
grieved at the evil tidings. His Majesty gave orders 
(to shut the child up in) a house 

6 in the country, provided mth attendants and all kinds 
of good things from the King's palace, and that the child 
should not go out abroad. (Now it came to pass 

7 after some time) when the child grew big, he ascended 
to the roof of the house, and he saw a dog, which was 
following a person who 

8 was going along the road. He said to his attendant, 

' The seven Hathors who attend at the birth of children, and predict 
their future fate, are mentioned also in the Tale, nf the Tiro Brothers, where 
they unanimously foretell a violent death to the woman who was formed 
by the creator Chnum to be the wife of Batau. These mysterious beings 
are the prototypes of the Parcce or Fates of the ancients. In the Book of 
the Dead, cap. cxlviii, they are represented as cows, and their names are 
given at length. 



156 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

who was beside him, " What is that which (follows the 
person going along) the road." He 
9 said to him, "That is a dog." The child said to him, 
"Let one be brought to me like it.'' The attendant 
went and repeated these things 

10 to His Majesty. His Majesty said, " Let there be got 
for him a boar-hunting dog, to run before him." Then 
they got for him 

11 a dog. Now it came to pass some time after this, the 
child became like a Prince, in all his limbs. He 

1 2 sent to his father, saying, " Why is it that I still remain 
shut up. I am destined (to die by one of three deaths 

) 

13 Let God do whatsoever pleases him." He 

went and 

Page 5 

1 all kinds of weapons to serve him. The 

man conducted him to the East. 

2 He said to him, " Go now whithersoever thou wilt." 
(He went off) and the dog with him. He went up to 
the country according to his will, he lived upon the best 
of 

3 all the beasts of the field. He arrived at the country 
of the Prince of Naharanna.' Now there was no child 
of the Prince of 

4 Naharanna," excepting one daughter. He had built a 
house for her, of which the window was distant 

5 cubits from the ground. He had sent for all 

the sons of all the Princes of the land of Chara and 
said to them, 

6 " Whoever shall scale the window of my daughter, she 
shall be his wife." It came to pass many days after this, 

' Mesopotamia. " Syria. 



TALE OF THE DOOMED PRINCE. 157 

7 while they were engaged in their daily occupations, the 
youth rode up to them. They 

8 received the youth into their house, washed him, they 
gave fodder to his 

9 horse, they did all sorts of things for the youth. They 
lodged (?) him, they shod (?) his feet, they 

10 brought him to their they said to him in the 

way of conversation, " Whence comest thou, 

11 thou good j^outh ?" He said to them, " I am the son 
of one of the horsemen of the land of Egypt. My mother 
died, and my 

12 father took another wife, a step-mother. Thereupon 
she hated me, and I fled from before her." He 

13 was silent (?). They kissed him He said to 

the 

14 youths, "What shall I do " (they tell him about 

the daughter of the King of Naharanna). 

Page 6. 

1 to scale the windoAV of the tower. Now it 

came to pass many days after this 

2 he said to them, " Do ye go out; I will call' 

I will go to climb' 

3 among you." They went to climb, according to their 
custom every day. The youth 

4 stood afar off looking on. The maid-servant (?) of the 
daughter of the Prince of Naharanna was upon it (the 
tower?). Now it came to pass some time after this, 

5 the youth went to climb with the children of the Princes ; 
he climbed 

6 and he reached the window of the daughter of the 

' Or conjure some Deity. 

' The word here translated climb almost implies to flij, if one could 
believe in the invention of aerostatics before the time of Icarus. 



158 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Prince of Naharanna. She kissed him, she embraced 
him in 

7 all his limbs. Some one went to congratulate her 
father, and said to him, " A man has scaled the window 

8 of thy daughter." The Prince inquired about him, 
saying, " The son of which of the Princes is it ? " They 
said to him, 

9 " It is the son of a horseman, who has run away from 
the land of Egypt, (from the face) of a step-mother." The 

10 Prince of Naharanna was exceedingly angry. He said, 
" How can I give my daughter to a runaway 

11 from Egypt. Let him go back again.'' They went 
and said (to the youth "Go back) to the place from 
whence thou camest." 

1 2 But the girl clung to him. She swore by God, sa>dng, 
" By the name of the Sun, HoRUS, (if I am prevented) 
from keeping him 

13 with me, I will neither eat nor drink." She was on the 
point of dying. A messenger 

14 went to announce all that she had said to her father. 
The Prince sent men to slay him (the youth). 

15 He was in his house. The girl said, "By the Sun if he 
is slain I will die too, 

16 I will not pass an hour of life (without) him. One went 
(and told all these things) to her father. (The Prince 
of Naharanna causes the youth to be brought to him). 

Page 7. 

1 (The result is favourable) The fear of him 

2 came upon the Prince. He embraced him, and kissed 
him in all his limbs. He said to him, " Behold thou art 

3 unto me as a son." He replied to him, " I am the child 
of a horseman of the land of Egypt. My mother died, 
my father took 



TALE OF THE DOOMED PRINCE. 1 59 

4 to himself another wife she hated me. I ran 

away from before her." He gave him his daughter to 
wife. He 

5 (gave him a handsome estabhshment.) Now it came to 
pass some time after this, that the youth 

6 said unto his wife, " I am predestined to one of three 
deaths ; either by a crocodile, a serpent, or a dog." She 
said to him, " Let 

7 (some precautions be taken)." He replied, " I will not 
cause my dog to be killed. How should he do it ? " 

8 The woman (urged) her husband greatly. He would 
not allow him (the dog ?) to go out alone. 

9 (He goes a journey to some place) in the land of Egypt 
to catch birds. Behold a crocodile' 

10 he was at the door of his house in the village, in which 
the . 

1 1 (youth had formerly dwelt). Behold there was a giant 
by him. The giant did not suffer him to go out. 

12 (he shut up) the crocodile. The giant went 

out to walk. Now when the da^vn 

13 appeared (the youth) went every day for the 

space of t^vo months. Now it 

14 came to pass some time after this, that the youth was 
sitting and making a feast in his house. Now it hap- 
pened that 

1 5 when night approached, the youth lay down upon his 
mat, and sleep overcame his limbs. 

Page 8. 

1 His wife was engaged in (some occupation connected 
with the bath). (There came a serpent) 

2 from a hole to bite the youth. Behold his wife was 
sitting beside him ; she was not reposing. Then the 
(servants came and presented something),- 

' Probably a sacred animal. ' Probably wine. 



l6o RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

3 to the serpent. He drank of it to intoxication.' He 
lay down overcome. (The woman kills him and throws 
him) 

4 into her bath. Then they awoke her husband 

(and told him what had happened). 

5 She said to him, Behold thy God hath given one of thy 
dooms into thy hand. He proceeded to make 

6 offerings to God, to worship him, and exalt his presence, 
every day. Now it came to pass some time after this, 

7 the youth went out to walk, at a distance from his 
dwelling. He did not 

8 Behold his dog followed him. His dog seized the head 
of (some animal) 

9 He began to run (after) him, he approached (a place 
near) the sea. He proceeded to the 

10 the dog was standing (near) the crocodile. He led him 
to where the giant was 

1 1 the crocodile (said) to the youth " I am thy doom, I am 
come after thee 

12 with the giant. But, behold, I will re- 
member (?) thee 

13 thou mayest bewitch me (like) the giant. 

But if thou seest 

14 Now it came to pass after two month's that 

(the youth) went 

Here unfortunately the fragment breaks off. Considering 
the rapidity with which the story is developed in these five 
pages, it may be presumed that at most not more than five 
others are required to complete the catastrophe which, one 
cannot help feeling, is in some way or other brought to pass 
by the faithful dog. 

' See Wilkinson Ancitnl Ef;ijfyli<:iis,'Vo\.V. 240, 241, for the feeding 
of sacred serpents on cakes and honey. 



i6i 



EGYPTIAN CALENDAR. 



: SACRED YEAR 

1 begins 


ALEXANDRIAN ' 

begins 


Thoth 


July 20 


August 29 


Paophi 


August 19 


September 28 


Athyr 


September 18 


October 28 


Choiak 


October 18 


November 27 


Tybi 


November 17 


December 27 


Mechir 


December 17 


January 26 


Phamenoth 


January 16 


February 25 


Pharmuthi 


February 15 


March 27 


Pashons 


March 17 


April 26 


Payni 


April 16 


May 26 


Epiphi 


May 16 


June 25 


Mesore 


June 15 


July 25' 



' The Alexandrian Year was introduced in the reig-n of Augustus, B.C. 25. 
' Epagomenae, 24th to zSth August. 



12 



l62 



TABLE 

OF THE 

EGYPTIAN DYNASTIES 



MYTHICAL PERIOD. 

(from manetho.) 

1. Gods I 3. Demigods 

2. Gods I 4. Manes. 



HISTORICAL PERIOD. 

(from manetho and the monuments.') 



DYNASTY. 


CAPITAL. 


MODERN NAME. 


SUPPOSED 
YEARS OF 
DYNASTY. 


I Thinite 


This 


Harahat el Maclfounel 


253 


II Thinite 


This 


Harat-at cl Madfouneh 


302 


III Memphite 

IV Memphite 


Memphis 
Memphis 


Mil-Rahyiieh 
MU-Rahyneh 


214 
284 


V Memphite 


Memphis 


Mil-Rahyneh 


24S 


VI Elephantine 


Elephantine 


Ge^iret- Assouan 


203 


VII Memphite 


Memphis 


Mil-Rahyneh 


70 


VIII Memphite 


Memphis 


Mil-Rahyneh 


142 


IX Heracleopolitan 


Heracleopolis 


Ahnas el Medineh 


109 


X Heracleopolitan 


Heracleopolis 


Ahnas el Medineh 


1S5 


XI Diospolitan ^ 


Thebffi 


Medinal Abu 


213 


XII Diospolitan 


Thebfe 


Medinal Abu 


453 


XllI Diospolitan 


Thebre 


Medinal Abu 


1S4 


XIV Xoite 


Xois 


Sakha 


5'i 


XV Shepherds 

(HyUshos) 


Tanis 


San 





This list is taken from Mariette, L'hisloire ancienne d' Egypte, p. 65. 
" /.e., Theban. 



RECORDS OF THE PAST. 



163 



DYNASTY. 


CAPITAL. 


MODERN NAME. 


SUPPOSED 
YE.\RS OF 
DYNASTY. 


XVI 


Shepherds 


Tanis 


SaJi 




XVII 


Diospolitan 


TliebiB 


Mediiiat Abu 


241 


XVIII 


Diospolitan 


Theb^ 


Medinat Ahit 


174 


XIX 


Diospolitan 


Thebse 


Medinai Abu 


I7S 


XX 


Diospolitan 


Theb^ 


Medinat Abu 




XXI 


Tanite 


.Tanis 


San 


130 


XXII 


Bubastite 


Bubastis 


Tel Basta \ 


170 


XXIII 


Tanite 


Tanis 


San 


89 


XXIV 


Saite 


Sais 


Sa-el-Hagar 


6 


XXV 


.(Ethiopian 


Napata 


Ml. Barkal 


50 


XXVI 


Saite 


Sais 


Sa-el-Hagar 


133 


XXVII 


Persian 


Persepolis 




121 


XXVIII 


Saite 


Sais 


Sa-el-Hagar 


7 


XXIX 


Mendesian 


iVIendes 


Ashmun-er-Ramaii 


21 


XXX 


Sebennyte 


Sebennytis 


Samanhoud 


38 


XXXI 


Persian 


Persepolis 


Takt-i-Jemshid 


8 



164 

EGYPTIAN 
MEASURES AND WEIGHTS. 



I Sutcn maha 

I Maha ur 

I Maha negs 

I Tser 

I Remen aa 

I Remen negs 

I Khcp 

I Shap 

4 Teb 



Royal cubit 
great cubit 
little cubit 
foot 

large span 
small span 

palm 
digits 
fractions 



7 palms. 

6 palms. 

5 palms. 

4 palms. 
14 digits. 

3 palms. 

5 digits. 

4 digits. 
I palm. 
I digit. 



These, according to Sir Henry James, are as follows : — 

INCHES 

I Royal cubit = 7 palms = 20.728. 

I palm = 4 digits = 2.961. 

I digit = .743- 

I span = 3 palms = 8 . 583. 

foot = 4 palms = II. 844. 



common cubit 

palm 

digit 

span 

foot 



palms 
palms 

palms 
digits 

palms 
palms 



Ten, 
Kat' 



pound 



10 kat 



didrachm or ounce 



Ifo?i (kin) 



18 . 240. 

3 • 040. 

o . 760. 

9 . 120. 

12 . 160. 

TROY GRAINS 
1400 
140 

75 pints. 



MEASURES OF WHICH THE EXACT EQUIVALENTS 
ARE NOT KNOWN. 



Tna. basket. 



Hetp, bushel. 



Khersk, truss. 



' The hatf^ quarter^ two-thirds^ one-sixth, and one-sixteenth, of a kat are 
found. 



i65 



LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS FOR TRANSLATION. 



ASSYRIAN. 

ARRANGED BY 

GEORGE SMITH. 



Wo7-ks on History and Chronology. 

Eponym Canon (Gun. Ins., Vol. Ill, p. i). 
Historical Canon (Gun. Ins., Vol. II, p. 52). 
Synchronous History (Gun. Ins., Vol. II, p. 65). 

Historical. 

Legends of Izdubar (texts unpublished). (Deluge Tablets.) 
Inscriptions of Urukh king of Babylonia (Gun. Ins., Vol. I, 

p. I). 
Inscriptions of Dungi son of Urukh (Gun. Ins., Vol. I, p. 2). 
Inscriptions of various other early Babylonian Sovereigns 

(Trans. Soc. Bib. Ar., Vol. I, pp. 37 to 46). 
Inscription of Sargon I king of Babylonia (Gun. Ins., Vol. 

Ill, p. 4). 
Inscription of Sargon and his son Naram-sin (Trans. Soc. 

Bib. Ar., pp. 49-51)- 
Various Inscriptions of Kuder-mabuk and Rim-sin his son 

(see Trans. Soc. Bib. Ar., p. 42, and notes). 
Early Babylonian Dated Tablets (texts unpublished). 
Brick of Samsi-vul I ruler of Assyria (Gun. Ins., Vol. i, p. 6). 
Brick of Kara-indas king of Babylon (Trans. Soc. Bib. Ar. 

p. 68). 



1 66 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Inscriptions of Burna-buriyas king of Babylon (Cim. Ins., 

Vol. I, p. 4, etc). 
Inscriptions of Kuri-galzu king of Babylon (Cun. Ins., 

Vol. I, p. 4, etc.). 
Inscriptions of Pudil king of Assyria (Revue Ar., Nov., 1869). 
Monolith of Maruduk-bal-idina I king of Babylonia (text 

unpublished). 
Tablet of Vul-nirari I king of Assyria (text unpublished). 
Small Inscriptions of Vul-nirari (various). 
Inscriptions of Shalmaneser I king of Assyria (various). 
Inscriptions of Tugulti-ninip king of Assyria (various un- 
published ; one Cun. Ins., Vol. Ill, p. 4). 
Inscriptions of Assur-risilim, king of Assyria (Cun. Ins., 

Vol. Ill, p. 3)- 
Brick and Cone Inscriptions of Vul-bal-idina king of Babylon 

(various). 
Inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar I king of Babylonia (un- 
published). 
Cylinder of Tiglath-Pileser I king of Assyria (Cun. Ins., 

Vol. I, pp. 9-16). 
Other fragments of Tiglath-Pileser (various). 
Contracts dated in the reign of Maruduk-nadin-ahi king of 

Babylon (various). 
Inscriptions of Assur-bel-kala king of Assyria (Cun. Ins., 

Vol. I, p. 6). 
Inscriptions of Samsivul IV king of Assyria (Cun. Ins., 

Vol. Ill, p. 3). 
Contract dated in the reign of Simnia-sihu king of Babylon 

(Layard's Ins., p. 53). 
Annals of Assur-nazir-pal king of Assyria, from pavement 

slabs (Cun. Ins., Vol. I, pp. 17-26). 
Other Inscriptions of Assur-nazir-pal (various). 
Kurkh Monolith of Shalmaneser II (Cun. Ins., Vol. Ill, 

pp. 7 and 8). 



LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS. 167 

Bull Inscription of Shalmaneser II(Layard'sIns., p. 12, etc.). 
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II (Layard's Ins., p. 87). 
Inscriptions of Vul-nirari III king of Assyria (Cun. Ins , 

Vol I. p. 35). 
Fragments of Annals of Tiglath-Pileser II king of Assyria 

(various). 
Fragments of Inscriptions Shalmaneser IV king of Assyria 

(various). 
Inscription of the Second Year of Sargon (unpublished). 
Nimrud Inscription of Sargon (Layard's Ins., p. 33). 
Cylinder (Barrel) of Sargon (Cun. Ins., Vol. I, p. 36). 
Prism of Sargon (unpublished). 
Fastes of Sargon (Botta). 
Annals of Sargon (Botta). 
Other Inscriptions of Sargon (various). 
Tablet of Kalah Shergat. 

Nebbi Yunas Tablet (Cun. Ins., Vol. I, pp. 43, 44). 
Bull Inscriptions of Sennacherib (Cun. Ins., Vol. Ill, pp. 12 

and 13). 
Other Inscriptions of Sennacherib (various). 
Cylinder of Esarhaddon king of Assyria (Cun. Ins., VoL I, 

PP- 45-47)- 

Various other Inscriptions of Esarhaddon (Cun. Ins., 
Vol. I, etc.). 

Portions of Cylinders B, C, D, and E of Assurbanipal 
(Smith's Assurbanipal). 

Various Historical Tablets of Assurbanipal (Smith's Assur- 
banipal). 

Hunting Texts of Assurbanipal (Cun. Ins., VoL I, p. 7). 

Inscriptions of Assur-ebel-ili king of Assyria (Cun. Ins., Vols. 
I and III). 

Cylinder of Bel-zakir-iskun king of Assyria (Cun. Ins. Vol. I. 

Inscription of Nabopalassar king of Babylonia (unpublished). 



l68 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Inscription (India House) of Nebuchadnezzar (Cun. Ins., 

Vol. I, pp. 53 to 64). 
Senkereh Cylinder of Nebuchadnezzar (Cun. Ins., Vol. I, 

P- 51)- 
Borsippa Cylinder of Nebuchadnezzar (Cun. Ins., Vol. I, 

P; SO- 
Various other texts of Nebuchadnezzar. 
Tablet dated in the reign of Evil Merodach king of Babylon. 
Cylinder of Nergal-shar-ezer king of Babylon (Cun. Ins., 

Vol. I, p. 67). 
Cylinders of Nabonidas king of Babylon (Cun. Ins., Vol. I, 

pp. 68, 69). 
Other texts of Nabonidas (various). 
Brick of Cyrus king of Babylon (Trans. Soc. Bib. Ar., Vol. II, 

pt.I). 
Inscription on Tomb of Cyrus. 
Dated Tablets in reign of Cambysses (various). 
Inscriptions of Darius. 
Inscriptions of Xerxes king of Persia. 
Inscriptions of Artaxerxes king of Persia. 
Later Inscriptions of Persian, Greek, and Parthian periods. 

Mythology and Religion {mostly unpublished). 

History of the Evil Spirits. 

Hymn to the Moon God. 

Hymns to Ninip. 

The War of the Gods. 

Incantations for removing Curses. 

Prayers of Amil-urgal. 

Prayer against Eclipses. 

Various other Prayers. 

Various Mythological Stories and Invocations. 

Tablets against Witchcraft. 



LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS. 1 69 

Fable {unpublished). •. 

The Horse and the Ox. 

Government {mostly unpublished). 
Tablet with Advice and Cautions to Kings. 
Various Reports and Despatches. 
Various Tablets with Laws and Law Cases. 

Private Life. 
Further Deeds of Sale and Barter. 
Further Loan Tablets. 
Private Letters. 
Lists of Property. 

Scietue, etc. {partly unpublished). 
Geographical Lists. 
Lists of Animals and Birds. 
Lists of Minerals and their uses. 
Lists of Wooden Objects. 
Grammatical Tablets (a selection from). 
Mathematical Tablets. 

Astrology and Astronomy. 

Further Selections from the great Chaldean Work on As- 
trology. 

Further Selections from Astronomical and Astrological 
Reports. 

A Selection of Omens from Terrestrial Objects and Events." 

PHCENICIAN 
Sarcophagus of Ashmunazer (Due de Luynes, Memoirc, 

1856). 
Marseilles Inscription (Judas, 1857). 
The Moabite Stone (Ginsburg, 1871). 
Selected Mortuary Inscriptions. 

' Selections of these only printed in Vol. I. 



170 



EGYPTIAN. 

(Tentative List only.) 



AnnANGED BY 

P. LE PAGE-RENOUF. 



Historical Documents. 
Ancient Empire : 

Inscription of Tomb of Ameni (Benihassan I). 

,, Tomb of Nahre-si Chnum-hotep (Beni- 

hassan II). 
Xlth Dynasty : 

Sepulchral Inscription of Ameni (Birch). 
XVIIIth Dynasty : 

Inscription of Aahmes son of Abna(Denk. Ill, pi. 12). 
„ Aahmes, formerly called Pensouvan 

(Louvre C, 49). 
,, Thothmes I at Karnak (Denk. Ill, 18). 

,, Hatasu (Duemichen, Hist. Ins., 19, 20). 

Other Monuments of Thothmes III (Birch and De 

Rouge). 
Inscription of Amem-em-heb at Abd-el-Gurnah (Ebers). 
Obelisk of Lateran. 
Inscription of Haremhebi. 
Inscriptions of Amenophis III (Denk. Ill, 65 and 

following). 
Monuments of the Disk Worshippers. 
XlXth Dynasty : 

Triumphal Inscription of Seti I at Karnak (Denk. Ill, 

126). 
Inscription of Seti I at Radesieh. 
Sarcophagus of Seti I (Bonomi). 
The Great Harris Papyrus of Rameses II. 



LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS. 171 

Dedicatory Inscription of Ramcses II at Abydos 
(Maspero). 

Triumphal Inscriptions (Denk. Ill, 165, etc.). 

Historical Inscription at Abusimbel (187). 

Great Tablet at Abusimbel (194). 

Inscription of Bek-en-Chonsu (Deveria). 
List of Kings : 

Turin Papyrus. 

Tablet of Abydos. 

Tablet of Sakkarali. 
XXth Dynasty : 

Inscription of Seti II (Duemichen, Hist. Ins., i to 5). 
„ Rameses III (Rosellini, Burton, Greene, 

and Duemichen, ubi supra 13 to 15). 
XXIst Dynasty : 

Tablet 4th year of Rameses IV. 

Tablet of Temple of Chonsu at Karnak. 
Ethiopic period : 

Dream Tablet. ^ 

"StHe de I'inthronisation." ^Mariette's Monuments. 

"Stele de I'excommunication. ''J 
Persian and Ptolemaic : 

Tablet of Aahmes (Pierret). 

Statuette Naophore du Vatican. 

Tablet of Tafnecht at Naples. 

Inscription of Ptolemy son of Lagos. 

Inscription of Alexander Argos (Zeitchrift). 

Tablet of Canopus. 
„ Rosetta. 

" Bauurkunde der Templelanlagen von Edfu'' (Due- 
michen). 

Two Ptolemaic Tablets (Birch). 

Selection of Obelisk Inscriptions. 
„ Apis Tablets. 



I-J2 RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

Religious or Magical Texts. 

Ancient Forms of Sepulchral Offerings, etc. (Tablets of 

Ancient Empire). 
Book of the Dead. 

Spells in Lepsius (" Aelteste Tcxte"). 
Harris Magical Papyrus. 

Magical Text in British Museum (Salt 825. Birch). 
" Horus on Crocodiles" (various texts, Leydenand elsewhere). 
Spells in Tomb of Bek-en-ren-ef 
" Metternich Tablet." 

" Sh& en sensenu; " the " Book of the Breaths of Life.'' 
Legend of Honis (Naville). 
Rhind Papyri. 
Sarcophagus of Aroeri (Bonomi). 

„ Necht-en-heb. 

„ T'at-hra (Louvre). 

,, British Museum, 32. 

Litanies of the Sun (Denk. Ill, 263). 
Apis Stela; (a very large number). 

Selection of Hymns, such as the following : 
To the Nile (Denk. Ill, 175). 
To Ammon (Denk. Ill, 237). 
Other Hymns to Ammon (Goodwin). 
Ap-heni-mes (Berlin, in Brugsch Monumens, pi. III). 
Meri ( „ ,, „ Pl- IV). 

To Osiris Bibliothfeque Nationale, Chacas). 
Fragments of the Hymns of the Disk Worshippers. 
Several in British Museum. 

„ Duemichen's publications. 

Great Psalm to Ammon (Leyden I, 350). 

Calendar of Lucky and Unlucky days (Sallier, Chabas). 
Calendars of Festivals from as Early Date as possible to 
Roman Period. 



LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS. 173 

Literature, Philosophy, Science, Economy. 
Proverbs, Prisse Papyrus (Chabas). 
Tale of the Garden of Flowers (Chabas). 
„ " Saneha " (Goodwin). 

„ Setnau (Brugsch, Rev. Arch.). 

"Rules of Life" (Papyrus at Bulaq, lately published by 

Marriette). 
Song of the Oxen (Denk. Ill, lo). 
Lay of the Harper. 

Solemn Festal Dirge of the Egyptians (Goodwin). 
Three Amatory Songs (Goodwin). 
Medical Papyrus (Berlin). 

„ „ (British Museum). 

„ ,, (Ebers Papyrus). 

Geometrical Papyrus (British Museum). 
Calendar of Astronomical Observations in Tombs of XXth 

Dynasty (Renouf). 
Letters on all varieties of subjects in the Sallier, Anastasi, 

Leyden, and Bologna Papyri. 
Registers, etc., (RoUin and other Papyri). 
Accounts. 

Receipts for making Kyphi, etc. 
Catalogues of the Temple Library at Edfu. 

Law and Policy. 

Abbott Papyrus (Spoliation of Tombs). 

"Pap. Judiciaire de Turin" (Deveria). 

"Pap. Judiciaire Amhurst" (Chabas). 

Report on Capture of Fugitive Slaves (Leyden I, 368, 

Chabas). 
Complaint against Paneba (British Museum, Salt, Chabas). 
Petition to king Amenophis (Chabas). 
Complaint against Thefts committed by certain Workmen 

(Chabas). 



RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

VOL. I. 



ASSYRIAN TEXTS. 



CONTENTS : 

INSCRIPTION OF RIMMON -NIRARI. 
REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

INSCRIPTION OF KHAMMURABI. 
H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 

MONOLITH INSCRIPTION OF SAM AS-RI MMON. 
REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

BELLINO'S CYLINDER OF SENNACHERIB. 
H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 

TAYLOR'S CYLINDER OF SENNACHERIB. 
H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 

ANNALS OF A S S U R B A N I P A L. 

GEORGE SMITH. 

BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS. 
SIR H. RAWLINSON, K.C.B., D.C.L. 

BABYLONIAN EXORCISMS. 
REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

PRIVATE WILL OF SENNACHERIB. 
REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

ASSYRIAN PRIVATE CONTRACT TABLETS. 
REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

LEGEND OF THE DESCENT OF ISHTAR. 
H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 

ASSYRIAN ASTRONOMICAL TABLETS. 
REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

ASSYRIAN CALENDAR. 
REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

TABLES OF ASSYRIAN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 
REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

LISTS OF FURTHER TEXTS, ASSYRIAN AND 

EGYPTIAN. 
Selected by GEORGE SMITH, and P. LE PAGE RENOUF, F.R.S.L. 



SAMUEL BAGSTER AND SONS, 15, Paternoster Row. 



RECORDS OF THE PAST. 

VOL. III. December 31, 1874. 



SECOND ASSYRIAN VOLUME. 
{Tentative List.) 



THE DELUGE TABLET, with Notes. 
GEORGE SMITH. 

EARLY BABYLONIAN INSCRIPTIONS. 
GEORGE SMITH. 

INSCRIPTION OF SARGON I. 
H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 

CYLINDER OF T I G L AT H- PI L ESER. 
SIR HENRY RAWLINSON, K.C.B. 

KURKH INSCRIPTION OF SHALMANESER. 
REV. A. H. SAYCE, M.A. 

INSCRIPTIONS OF ESARHADDON. 
H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 

INSCRIPTION OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR. 
REV. J. M. RODWELL, M.A. 

ANNALS OF ASSU RB M^ \P Ah (Htoitrng Texts). 
GEORGE SMITH. 

THE SYNCHRONOUS HISTORY OF ASSYRIA 
AND BABYLONIA. 
REV. A. H. SAYCE, MA. 

THE CANON OF BEROSUS {Assyrian Original). 
GEORGE SMITH. 

ASSYRIAN SACRED POETRY. 
H. FOX TALBOT, F.R.S. 

SELECTED UNPUBLISHED TEXTS. 
SIR HENRY RAV/LINSON, K.C.B. 



SAMUEL BAGSTER AND SONS, 15, Paternoster Row. 



(^Original Circular) 



SOCIETY OF BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY. 
9, Conduit Street, W. 

6th May, 1873. 
Sir, 

I beg to inform you that it is intended shordy to 
publish a Series of Translations of all the important 
Assyrian and Egyptian Texts, which exist in the various 
collections of England and the Continent, and thus place 
before the English Student the remains of undoubtedly The 
Oldest and most Authentic Literature in the World, 
the foundation of all History, Archaeology, and Biblical 
exposition, the contemporaneous records of the nations and 
writers of the Bible. Nearly all the principal Translators 
have offered their services for this purpose, and while each 
Author will be alone responsible for his portion of the work, 
the general arrangement of the materials will rest with the 
President of this Society. The selection of the records 
will not be confined to those bearing directly on the text 
of the Bible, but embrace the entire range of Egyptian 
and Assyrian history and literature. Each translation will 
quote the authorities upon which it is based, or the monu- 
ment from which it is taken, and all other notes will be as 
few and brief as possible, to avoid controversy and expense. 

The volumes will be issued by Messrs. Bagster and 
Sons, at a price to bring them within the reach of all 
who are interested in such subjects. 

I shall be happy to answer any communication addressed 
to me upon this subject, and trust that you will promote 
the best interests of Biblical Archaeology, by circulating 
this notice among your friends. 

I remain, Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

W. R. COOPER. 



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